Lecture 2 Nervous System Cells and their Proteins

Cytoskeleton protein based structure which allows the

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Cytoskeleton – protein based structure which allows the cell to maintain its shape allows localization and interconnection between organelles give shape to neurons or glia; dynamically modulated –> role in the plasticity of neurons very important for cell morphology o Mitochondria – the cell's power house take things like carbs (sugars), fats and proteins, and converts them into energy (ATP) multiple membranes: creates specific micro-environments (eg high pH) metabolic enzymes: break down macronutrients into usable energy (ATP) cellular energy is ATP most of the processes that cells engage in are linked energy uses either directly in the form of enzymes (catalyzes) or indirectly (cell channels depend on ion concentrations which depends on ATP) almost anything a cell does will use up energy o Nucleus nuclear envelope – separates nucleus from the rest of the cell (soma)
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chromosomes – store genetic info (DNA) which encodes info on how to make a protein nucleolus – production of RNA (a copied form of DNA shuttled out of the nucleus for cellular use) o Endoplasmic Reticulum: Rough – membranes, ribosomes (large protein complex –> enzyme complex) → protein synthesis smooth – membranes, enzymes, ca2+ store → fat synthesis, protein modification, ca2+ regulation o Golgi Apparatus o membranes. Enzymes (?) protein packaging. Takes initial proteins made by the rough endoplasmic reticulum puts it into a vesicle (packaging device) and then sends it off to diff parts of the cell. o Compartmentalization – cell body major site for protein production Protein synthesis aka gene expression protein synthesis defines cellular identity Protein synthesis aka Gene Expression o Protein synthesis & cell differentiation/specialization All cells of an organism are initially derived from a single cell and thus share the same genes (DNA) But cell can perform diff biological function through selective expression of DNA/ synthesis of protein i.e a neuron is a neuron b/c it makes a specific set of proteins 90% of genes common to all cells. Small set of cells that are specialized for diff cellular functions. Gene Expression = Protein synthesis Basic dogma of biology DNA mRNA Protein The end result of gene expression is a specific protein that contributes to the function of the cell. Transcription (DNA mRNA) “copying” process DNA found in a double helix. Specific parts are opened up so that you can read it. Can only read it by DNA polymerase and copy it to mRNA. Only “sense” or “template” DNA is transcribed to RNA RNA is complementary to template DNA One strand of the DNA is copied to make mRNA so it can make protein.
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