A creature who is conceptualized as a product of the

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A creature who is conceptualized as a product of the work itself, rather than as the work’s producer - A narrator may be: o Intradiegetic – a character within the story itself More commonly the source of narrative unreliability o Extradiegetic – announces herself as telling the story as fiction with a distinct voice from the author - The intentions of the implied author determine what is true in the story, while the mental economy of the narrator is thought of simply as a part of the story itself and not as authoritative - We perceive a disparity between the intentions of the implied author concerning what is true in the story and the intentions of the narrator concerning what she would have the reader believe occurred The Asymmetry Between Literature and Film Foreground Narrator : one whose presence is signaled in the work itself Background Narrator : a narrator whose presence has to be inferred Controlling Narrators : he/she is the source of the text before us Non-controlling Narrator : the narrator is embedded, her own text is not the text we read but a text described/reported in the text we read - It is simpler to assume that a background narrator is controlling than that she is not - Background narrators are extremely rare - Unreliability can occur as a result of there being a certain kind of complex intention on the part of the implied author Which Definition? - The implied author intends us to see the moral idiocy of the narrator Ambiguity and Unreliability - An ambiguous narrative is one that does not enable us to answer all the significant questions that arise concerning the story o When it is a question that members of the audience are (normally) inclined to ask concerning the narrative - The narrative is ambiguous if it is a narrative that leads us to expect an answer to a question when in fact it does not provide an answer - Satisfaction of the proposed criterion is not necessary for ambiguity - A narration is ambiguous if it raises a question in the viewer’s mind which it fails to answer, and where the raising and the non-answering seem to have been intentional o EX: Inception - Something can be both ambiguous and unreliable - Unreliability is an easier effect to achieve when it goes with ambiguity than when it does not - The task of the author of an unreliable narration is to set clues at two levels: o Clues are more obvious but only superficially persuasive o Less obvious but more weighty when reflected upon
- Increase of “distance” between what you want to convey on a first impression and what you want the audience to catch on further reflection increases difficulty - Transition to Openness : an unreliable narrative that seems, superficially, to close a certain issue but reveals on reflection that the question is left open - Transition to Closure : the narrative seems, superficially, to leave an issue open but is seen on reflection to answer the question one way or another o Less frequently seen in literature Implied Author and Narrator -

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