S greenhouse effect greenhouse effect per se per se

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Unformatted text preview: s Greenhouse effect Greenhouse effect per se per se is a is a good good thing: without thing: without it, surface temperature would be too low to it, surface temperature would be too low to support life. support life. s But ongoing anthropogenic emission of But ongoing anthropogenic emission of “greenhouse gases” is increasing the strength of “greenhouse gases” is increasing the strength of the greenhouse, and this can be the greenhouse, and this can be bad bad : humanity is : humanity is vulnerable to changes in climate. vulnerable to changes in climate. s But how does increasing greenhouse gas But how does increasing greenhouse gas concentration affect concentration affect surface temperature surface temperature ? ? Introduction to Meteorology & Climate Enhanced greenhouse effect Enhanced greenhouse effect z temp T s sunlight goes all the way down and heats surface T e S (1– α )/4 σ T e 4 z e T s + ∆ T increased greenhouse gases cause emission level to rise , throwing planet out of balance temperature increases to re-establish equilibrium σ (T e – ∆ T) 4 Introduction to Meteorology & Climate Surface temperature over the past 1000 years 3 Introduction to Meteorology & Climate Carbon dioxide (CO Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) over the last 1000 years ) over the last 1000 years Introduction to Meteorology & Climate Predictions of future Predictions of future warming warming OK, maybe problems big problems Introduction to Meteorology & Climate Feedback: the general idea Feedback: the general idea Increase CO 2 Increase temp Increase X positive feedback Introduction to Meteorology & Climate Important feedbacks Important feedbacks s Ice Ice albedo albedo feedback feedback s Water Water vapour vapour feedback feedback s Cloud feedback Cloud feedback (there are more, but these are the biggest) (there are more, but these are the biggest) Introduction to Meteorology & Climate Ice Ice albedo albedo feedback feedback s As surface temperature increases, some of the ice in the polar ice caps melts, exposing ocean or boreal forest s Ice is much more reflective to sunlight than ocean or forest s So the feedback goes like this: Increased CO 2 —› raises T —› melts some ice —› decreases reflectivity —› more insolation is absorbed —› raises T even further Introduction to Meteorology & Climate Water Water vapour vapour feedback feedback...
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