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56 Diagnostic ultrasound Focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST)
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hypotensive patient help mobilize the operating room more effectively? Could identifying lung sliding prevent unnecessary bilateral needle decom- pression in a hypotensive patient and thus avoid tube thorocostomy? There is increasing research looking at this, but good outcome-oriented data are needed [ 36 ]. References 1. American College of Surgeons (ACS). Advanced Trauma Life Support for Physicians . Chicago, IL: ACS; 1997. 2. American College of Emergency Physicians. Use of ultrasound imaging by emergency physicians. Policy 400121. . 3. American College of Emergency Physicians. Emergency ultrasound guidelines 2001. . 4. Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. Ultrasound position state- ment. . 5. Henneman PL, Marx JA, Moore EE, Cantrill SV, Ammons LA. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage: accuracy in predicting necessary laparotomy following blunt and penetrating trauma. J Trauma 1990; 30 : 1345–55. 6. Cogbill TH, Moore EE, Jurkovich GJ, et al . Nonoperative management of blunt splenic trauma: a multicenter experience. J Trauma 1989; 29 : 1312–17. Figure 2.49 The top image demonstrates normal diaphragmatic movement in M-mode during the respiratory cycle. The bottom image illustrates the loss of movement in the setting of diaphragmatic injury. From Blaivas et al . [35 ]. Reprinted with permission from Dr. Michael Blaivas, Professor of Emergency Medicine, Northside Hospital Forsyth, Atlanta, GA. Diagnostic ultrasound 57 Focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST)
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7. Bose SM, Mazumdar A, Gupta R, et al . Expectant management of haematoperitoneum. Injury 1999; 30 : 269–73. 8. Minarik L, Slim M, Rachlin S, Brudnicki A. Diagnostic imaging in the follow-up of nonoperative management of splenic trauma in children. Pediatr Surg Int 2002; 18 : 429–31. 9. Branney SW, Wolfe RE, Moore EE, et al . Quantitative sensitivity of ultra- sound in detecting free intraperitoneal fluid. J Trauma 1995; 39 : 375–80. 10. McKenney KL, McKenney MG, Cohn SM, et al . Hemoperitoneum score helps determine need for therapeutic laparotomy. J Trauma 2001; 50 : 650–4. 11. Branney SW, Moore EE, Cantrill SV, Burch JM, Terry SJ. Ultrasound based key clinical pathway reduces use of hospital resources for the evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma. J Trauma 1997; 42 : 1086–90. 12. Melniker LA, Leibner E, McKenney MG, et al . Randomized controlled trial of point-of-care limited ultrasonography for trauma in the emer- gency department: the first sonography outcomes assessment program trial. Ann Emerg Med 2006; 48 : 227–35. 13. Kimura A, Otsuka T. Emergency center ultrasonography in the evaluation of hematoperitoneum: a prospective study. J Trauma 1991; 31 : 20–3. 14. Rothlin MA, Naf R, Amgwerd M, et al . Ultrasound in blunt abdominal and thoracic trauma. J Trauma 1993; 34 : 488–95. 15. Rozycki GS, Ochsner MG, Jaffin JH, Champion HR. Prospective evalu- ation of surgeons’ use of ultrasound in the evaluation of the trauma patient. J Trauma 1993; 34 : 516–27.
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