Economic pressures continue to be the dominant factor

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Economic pressures continue to be the dominant factor in fl uencing the behavior of textile fi rms. The Brazilian economic environment is jeopardized by high taxes and interest rates, which reduce investment possibilities. Textile companies demanded fi nancial support from governments and received assistance through subsidies and support from the Brazilian Development Bank. The main purpose of the investments was to increase the production capacity, build new plants, acquire new equipment, and protect the environment (Kon and Coan 2005 ). These fi rms cannot afford to invest a large amount of money over a number of years in order to improve environmental performance of their products and process. However, textile fi rms attempt to meet the legal requirements of enforcement agencies within a limited range of organizational capabilities. Brazilian textile companies merely ful fi ll the minimum legal requirements of enforcement agencies (Abreu 2009 ). These companies are predominantly small and medium sized, and they operate mainly domestically. Company customers are mainly concerned with price, delivery time, and quality. Many retailers are sending con fl icting signals back up the textile supply chain as they try to manage and balance green and business interests. Nonetheless, international customers exert a higher pressure on large textile companies to improve their environmental performance. Most textile companies have not implemented environmental policies. In gen- eral, they have not appointed an environmental manager. The percentage of investments related to the environment is not signi fi cant in textile companies. However, some textile companies are in the process of implementing environmental training programs, ISO 14001 certi fi ed environmental management systems, and purchasing and contract requirements. Perspectives, Drivers, and a Roadmap for Corporate 11
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The reasons for implementing an environmental management system (EMS) were discussed by Abreu ( 2009 ). Brazilian textile companies tend to base their EMS on meeting legal requirements. Operational controls involve wastewater and electric energy, which represent the most signi fi cant production costs. Few textile companies use communication practices to cultivate links with stakeholders or report environmental performance. Brazilian textile companies are affected by weak stakeholder pressure because their environmental impact is low and enforcement is not a high priority. They represent an important source of employment for people in areas where they have their production facilities. Social pressures are low and there are fewer motives to develop environmental strategies. Abreu ( 2009 ) also pointed out that textile companies have predominantly sleeper approaches. Environmental issues do not in fl uence the fi rm s strategy.
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