Chapter 4

# Percent yield yield actual yield theoretical yield

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Percent yield: % yield = actual yield / theoretical yield Solution: a homogenous mixture of two or more substances( salt and water) Solvent: the majority component of the mixture Solute: the minority component Aqueous solution: where water acts a solvent Dilute solution: adding a little bit of salt to solution Concentrated solution: adding a salt to water Molarity (M) = amount of solute( in mol) / volume of solution (in L) Mass of Solution = mass of solute + mass of solvent Solution dilution: M1V1 + M2V2 V1 = M2V2/M1 *when diluting acids, always add the concentrated acid to the water, never the other way around because the heat generated will cause it to splatter. Water mixes well with ionic and polar Electrolytes: substances that dissolve in water to form solutions to conduct electricity. Strong: completely dissociate into ions when dissolved in water

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Nonelectrolytes: do not dissociate into ions Weak (acids): do not completely ionizer in water Soluble: if a compound dissolves in water Insoluable: if it does not dissolve in water Precipitation Reactions: two solutions containing soluble compounds combine and an insoluble compound Aqueous Reactions Molecular equation: shows the complete, neutral formulas for every compound in a reaction Complete ionic equation: shows off all the species as they are actually present in solution Net Ionic equation: shows only the species that actually change during the reaction
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