suspended by electrical charges small organic molecules simple sugars ions

Suspended by electrical charges small organic

This preview shows page 38 - 51 out of 79 pages.

suspended by electrical charges small organic molecules (simple sugars) & ions dissolved inclusions (large aggregates of one material) lipid droplets glycogen granules Site of many important chemical reactions production of ATP, synthesis of building blocks
Image of page 38
3-39 Cell Organelles Nonmembranous organelles lack membranes & are indirect contact with cytoplasm Membranous organelles surrounded by one or two lipid bilayer membranes
Image of page 39
3-40 Cytoskeleton Network of protein filaments throughout the cytosol Functions cell support and shape organization of chemical reactions cell & organelle movement Continually reorganized
Image of page 40
3-41 The Cytoskeletonal Filaments Microfilaments thinnest filaments (actin) locomotion & division support microvilli Intermediate filaments several different proteins anchor organelles Microtubules large cylindrical structures (composed of tubulin) flagella, cilia & centrosomes
Image of page 41
3-42 Centrosome Found near nucleus Pericentriolar area formation site for mitotic spindle and microtubules Centrosome 2 centrioles(90 degrees to each other) 9 clusters of 3 microtubules (9+0 array) role in formation of cilia & flagella
Image of page 42
3-43 Cilia and Flagella Structure pairs of microtubules (9+2 array) covered by cell membrane basal body is centriole responsible for initiating its assembly Differences cilia short and multiple flagella longer and single
Image of page 43
3-44 Movement of Cilia and Flagella Cilia stiff during power stroke but flexible during recovery many coordinated together airways & uterine tube Flagella single flagella wiggles in a wavelike pattern propels sperm forward
Image of page 44
3-45 Ribosomes Packages of Ribosomal RNA & protein Free ribosomes are loose in cytosol synthesize proteins found inside the cell Membrane-bound ribosomes attached to endoplasmic reticulum or nuclear membrane synthesize proteins needed for plasma membrane or for export 10 to 20 together form a polyribosome Inside mitochondria, synthesize mitochondrial proteins
Image of page 45
3-46 Ribosomal Subunits Large + small subunits made in the nucleolus assembled in the cytoplasm
Image of page 46
3-47 Endoplasmic Reticulum Network of membranes forming flattened sacs or tubules called cisterns half of membranous surfaces within cytoplasm Rough ER continuous with nuclear envelope & covered with attached ribosomes synthesizes, processes & packages proteins for export free ribosomes synthesize proteins for local use Smooth ER -- no attached ribosomes synthesizes phospholipids, steroids and fats detoxifies harmful substances (alcohol)
Image of page 47
3-48 Smooth & Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough ER is covered with fixed ribosomes.
Image of page 48
3-49 Golgi Complex 3-20 flattened, curved membranous sacs called cisterns Convex side faces ER & concave side faces cell membrane Processes & packages proteins produced by rough ER
Image of page 49
3-50 Packaging by Golgi Complex Proteins pass from rough ER to golgi complex in transport vesicles Processed proteins pass from entry cistern to medial cistern to exit cistern in transfer vesicle Finished proteins exit golgi as secretory, membrane or storage vesicle (lysosome)
Image of page 50
Image of page 51

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 79 pages?

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture