Characterized more by shared reputations or images

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Characterized more by shared reputations or images than actual interactions Romantic relationships often form in context of mixed-sex peer groups Romantic relationships are centrally connected to adolescents’ emerging sexuality Reward-processing centers develop more rapidly than cognitive control systems Theories of adolescent development often focus on identity formation as central issues o Erikson’s theory of developmental stages – identity formation was primary indicator of development o Model of ethnic identity development – ethnic identity search, unexplored & achieved ethnic identity James Marcia described identity formation as involving decision points & commitments – 4 identity statuses o (1) Foreclosure – individual commits to identity w/o exploring options o (2) Identity diffusion – adolescents neither explore nor commit to any identities o (3) Moratorium – adolescents are actively exploring options buy have not yet made commitments o (4) Identity achievement – individuals explored different options & made identity commitments Antisocial behavior can begin during childhood ( early starters ) or during adolescence ( late starters ) o Early starters are at greater risk for long-term antisocial behavior that extends into adulthood o Late starts experience poor parental monitoring and supervision – increases involvement w/ deviant peers Motiff says adolescent anti-social behavior is due to maturity gap btwn dependence on and control by adults & desire to demonstrate freedom from adult constraint Females have rates of anxiety 2x as high and of depression 1.5-3x as high in early adolescence o Anxiety and depression are concerning since suicide is one of the leading causes of death in adolescence
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o Girls have more relationship-oriented goals related to intimacy and social approval Academic achievement in adolescence is predicted by interpersonal, intrapersonal, and institutional factors o Most serious consequence of school failure is high risk of unemployment or underemployment Early puberty has worse outcomes for girls – they tend to associate w/ older boys leading to early sexual behavior Differential susceptibility – genetic factors that make people responsive to environmental experiences Emerging Adulthood Emerging adulthood – new life stage btwn adolescence & young adulthood lasting from ages 18 to 25 o Mainly found in developed countries where most young people obtain tertiary education o Last longest in Europe and in Asian developed countries Theory of emerging adulthood proposes that a new life stage arose over past half- century in industrialized countries o About 50 years ago, teenage adolescence led quickly to stable adult roles in love & work by late teens Early 20s now are not a tine of entering stable adult work but a time of immense job instability o Higher proportion of young people are pursuing education and training beyond secondary school
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  • Spring '08
  • YOUNG
  • Psychology, prefrontal cortex

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