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phases of rits or passage which can be applied to pilgrimage 1.Separation (leaving comfortable place) 2.Liminality (transition phase) 3.Reintegration (reenter daily life and emerged as a new person) -Victor Turner wrote that pilgrimage sites are the “center out there”, the point of pilgrimage is to go out to a far off and unfamiliar place (liminality) Sacred Sites as Destination of Pilgrimage:although there are notions of strictly spiritual of metaphorical pilgrimages in some traditions, pilgrimage is typically a journey to a physical place -While many kinds of places can be the object of pilgrimage, they tend to have what James Preston referred to as “spiritual magnetism” -May be rooted in a site’s association with major spiritual/historical events within a religion, such as Mecca or Jerusalem -May be associated with a particular person (such as the tomb or birthplace of a holy person) -This is the place where their presence is felt most strongly -Miraculous occurrences, and especially visions of holy figures, may establish new pilgrimage sites or enhance existing ones -Pilgrimage demonstrates belief in the power of place, the inherent sacredness and healing energies of specific locations -Records of healing often accumulate at pilgrimage sites, and crutches and other offerings are left as symbols of the site’s power -Some sites are established by the “grassroots”, others by religious authorities and even local politicians -Pilgrimage sites are understood as sites where people can have “authentic” experiences with the divine Pilgrimage and Commercial Development:with pilgrims comes the need for hotels, bars, restaurants, shopping, and other services -Pilgrimage sites are sometimes criticized by strict religious purists for their mix of the sacred with “crass” commercialism -Commerce has always been deeply embedded in the pilgrimage experience Pilgrimage and Water:an important feature of many pilgrimage sites across is a focus on water, as a feature in the landscape as well as a symbol in ritual -Water as a sources of: -Purity -Renewal -Healing Unconventional Pilgrimage:some sites of pilgrimage, such as Varanasi or Mecca, are tied to established religions, while others are unconnected to formal religious traditions -Without being explicitly religious, some tourist sites or festivals can take on the qualities of pilgrimage -Ritual -Collective experience
-Potential to be transformative -Meaning beyond oneself Religion:a set of beliefs (and associated activities) that facilitates an appreciation and understanding of our place in the world and acts to unify -One of the fundamental ways (like language) that cultural groups distinguish themselves from one another -Universality: a degree of universality exists about religion → basic human/cultural need -Religious Laws/Beliefs Govern: diet, dress, roles of men/women, laws, education system, lifestyles -Ex. consider Ontario → public holidays (Christmas and Easter) affect everyone’s lifestyle -