Intentionality mckelvey 1997 p 357 intentionality the

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intentionality’’ ( McKelvey, 1997, p. 357 ). Intentionality The concept of intentionality has been widely discussed in the fields of philosophy and psychology. It is generally described as a state of mind in which activity is directed toward something – that is, purposiveness – or is about something – that is, aboutness (e.g., Anscombe, 1957 ; Binkley, Bronaugh, & Marras, 1971 ; Bratman, 1987 ; Brentano, 1874/1973 ; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975 ; Heckhausen, 1991 ; Husserl, 1913/1983 ; Lyons, 1995 ; Malle, Moses, & Baldwin, 2001 ; Ryan, 1970 ; Searle, 1983 ). To emphasize the THOMAS HUTZSCHENREUTER ET AL. 120
Table 1. International Business Theories and the Role of Management. Approach Unit of Analysis/Focus Main Argument Role of Management Theory of monopolistic advantage ( Hymer, 1960 ) Firms/ownership and monopolistic advantage Companies internationalize to gain control of foreign assets and to deploy their specific advantages in the foreign markets Passive; managers are seeking for market opportunities with regard to the advantages the firm possesses Internalization theory ( Buckley & Casson, 1976 ; Hennart, 1982 ; Rugman, 1980 ; Teece, 1986 ) Firms/transaction costs Cross-border steps occur if the market transactions costs are higher than the costs for using the internal hierarchy of the firm Passive; managers are to trade off the costs of both transactions via the market or internalized through the firm Eclectic paradigm (Dunning, 1977, 1979, 1980) Firms/ownership (O)-, location (L)-, and internalization (I)- advantages The (non)possession of the OLI- advantages determines whether and how firms internationalize Passive; managers assess the different advantage types and decide on the entry mode of internationalization based on the preceding assessment Internationalization process theory (Johanson & Vahlne, 1977, 2009) Firms/learning and knowledge The incremental internationa- lization process within and across countries depends on the market knowledge gained by the firm through business activities Passive; managers as carriers of knowledge, trust, commitment, and network relations Knowledge-based view of the MNC ( Kogut & Zander, 1993 ) Firms/knowledge transfer Internationalization activities take place due to the transfer of knowledge whereby the mode depends on the codifiability, teachability, and complexity of the respective knowledge Passive; managers as parts of a social community and knowledge creators and transmitters Role of Managerial Intentionality in International Business 121
action-related quality of intentionality, we limit the discussion that follows to the meaning of purposiveness or goal-directedness. Intentionality is a core feature of human agency as ‘‘to be an agent is to intentionally make things happen by one’s actions’’ ( Bandura, 2001, p. 2 ). The notion of intentionality and intention, that is, a concrete mental representation in terms of content, is used in various models that deal with reasoned action of agents. For example, in the ‘‘Theory of Planned Behavior’’ developed by Ajzen (1991) , attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are argued to predict behavioral intentions.

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