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intentionality’’ (McKelvey, 1997, p. 357).IntentionalityThe concept of intentionality has been widely discussed in the fields ofphilosophy and psychology. It is generally described as a state of mind inwhich activity is directed toward something – that is, purposiveness – oris about something – that is, aboutness (e.g.,Anscombe, 1957;Binkley,Bronaugh, & Marras, 1971;Bratman, 1987;Brentano, 1874/1973;Fishbein &Ajzen, 1975;Heckhausen, 1991;Husserl, 1913/1983;Lyons, 1995;Malle,Moses, & Baldwin, 2001;Ryan, 1970;Searle, 1983). To emphasize theTHOMAS HUTZSCHENREUTER ET AL.120
Table 1.International Business Theories and the Role of Management.ApproachUnit of Analysis/FocusMain ArgumentRole of ManagementTheory of monopolisticadvantage (Hymer, 1960)Firms/ownership andmonopolistic advantageCompanies internationalize to gaincontrol of foreign assets and todeploy their specific advantagesin the foreign marketsPassive; managers are seeking formarket opportunities withregard to the advantages thefirm possessesInternalization theory(Buckley & Casson, 1976;Hennart, 1982;Rugman,1980;Teece, 1986)Firms/transaction costsCross-border steps occur if themarket transactions costs arehigher than the costs for usingthe internal hierarchy of the firmPassive; managers are to trade offthe costs of both transactionsvia the market or internalizedthrough the firmEclectic paradigm(Dunning, 1977, 1979,1980)Firms/ownership (O)-,location (L)-, andinternalization (I)-advantagesThe (non)possession of the OLI-advantages determines whetherand how firms internationalizePassive; managers assess thedifferent advantage types anddecide on the entry mode ofinternationalization based onthe preceding assessmentInternationalization processtheory (Johanson &Vahlne, 1977, 2009)Firms/learning andknowledgeThe incremental internationa-lization process within andacross countries depends on themarket knowledge gained by thefirm through business activitiesPassive; managers as carriers ofknowledge, trust, commitment,and network relationsKnowledge-based view ofthe MNC (Kogut &Zander, 1993)Firms/knowledge transferInternationalization activities takeplace due to the transfer ofknowledge whereby the modedepends on the codifiability,teachability, and complexity ofthe respective knowledgePassive; managers as parts of asocial community andknowledge creators andtransmittersRole of Managerial Intentionality in International Business121
action-related quality of intentionality, we limit the discussion that follows tothe meaning of purposiveness or goal-directedness.Intentionality is a core feature of human agency as ‘‘to be an agent is tointentionally make things happen by one’s actions’’ (Bandura, 2001, p. 2).The notion of intentionality and intention, that is, a concrete mentalrepresentation in terms of content, is used in various models that deal withreasonedactionofagents.Forexample,inthe‘‘TheoryofPlannedBehavior’’ developed byAjzen (1991), attitudes, subjective norms, andperceived behavioral control are argued to predict behavioral intentions.