The second example considered the convention of active land policy by Dutch

The second example considered the convention of

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[…] The second example considered the convention of active land policy by Dutch municipalities, and the change within that convention” (Buitelaar et al. 2007, p. 892). Buitelaar et al. suggested that path- dependency is the most “viable” theory to explain institutional change. However, they also criticised path-dependency for not allowing for sufficient agency. As a result, they supplemented the theory with Hajer’s (1995) conc ept of ‘discursive hegemony’. The starting point for discursive hegemony was an existing institutional arrangement accompanied by two streams: “First, a stream of reflection, alternative ideas (solutions), and actions of the institutional bricoleurs that challenge the present institutional arrangement under strain; second external societal developments, notably those that put the present institutional arrangement under strain.” (Buitelaar and De Kam 2011) In the centre of Buitelaar et al.’s model are bricoluers (bricklayers), the agents that pursue institutional change. Buitelaar et al. argued that institutional design should not be seen as being opposed to institutional evolution, but as an integral part of it (Buitelaar et al. 2007, p. 895). As such, bricoluers are both limited by existing structures (path-dependent), but are also influential in the policy making process 31 Technically, Buitelaar et al. (2007) apply Hajor’s (1995) concept of ‘discursive hegemony’ in combination with MS in their study. This study is included here because the authors claim that their approach is close to DI (p. 896, footnote). 32 Buitelaar and De Kam’s (2011) study about the institutional changes in the provision of land in social housing in the Netherlands uses the theoretical model developed in Buitel aar et al.’s study. The empirical findings confirm their model. The study offers mostly empirical case related findings which are not relevant for this thesis. The study is, therefore, not further reviewed here.
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95 through discourse and their actions in critical moments and at critical junctures. This argument reflects very closely the assumption about sentient agents in DI. To identify the timing of critical moments and junctures, the authors use MS. They suggest that the first critical moment (window of opportunity) arises from external societal developments, institutional reflections and institutional arrangements (discursive hegemony). This critical moment arises in what MS would classify as the political stream. Only when this critical moment is coupled with powerful alternative ideas (policy stream) and problem perceptions (problem stream) is a critical juncture (a second window of opportunity) reached which results in institutional transformation. Figure 4.3 visualises their model. Figure 4.3: A Model of Institutional Change (Buitelaar at al. 2007) Institutional arrangement (discursive hegemony) External societal development Institutional reflection 1 st window of opportunity Critical moment Perception of issues and problems Ideas and solutions (Institutional design) 2 nd window of opportunity Critical juncture (institutional transformation)
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96 Buitelaar et al.’s
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  • Government, The Land, International Financial Reporting Standards, Financial Accounting Standards Board, Australian Accounting Standards Board, Snow

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