US History/Reconstruction8American Catholics, mostly recently immigrated Irish, fought against the United States in the Mexican-Americanwar. These men fought for the Mexicans and were known as "Saint Patrick's Battalion ( ). In 1850, Franklin Piercepresented several resolutions that would remove the restrictions on Catholics from holding public office in NewHampshire, these resolutions that were, at the time, considered "pro-Catholic' were defeated (Battle of ReligiousTolerance," The World Almanac, 1950, 53). However as the 19th century passed, hostilities between Catholics andProtestants eased due to the fact that many Irish Catholics fought alongside Protestants during the Civil War, for boththe North and the South.EducationEx-slaves everywhere across the nation reached out for education. Blacks of all ages really wanted to know what wasin the books that had been only permitted to whites. With freedom they started their own schools and the classeswere packed days and nights. They sat on log seats or the dirt floors. They would study their letters in old almanacsand in discarded dictionaries. Because the desire to escape slavery's ignorance was so great, ignoring their poverty,many blacks would pay tuition, sometimes $1 or $1.50 a month. Blacks and their white allies also saw a need forcolleges and universities, in this case to train teachers, ministers, and professionals for leadership. There were sevencolleges founded by the American Missionary Association, Fisk and Atlanta Universities, between 1866 and 1869.The Freedoms Bureau helped to establish Howard University in Washington D.C. As well as Northern religiousgroups, such as the Methodists, Baptists, and Congregationalists, supported dozens of seminaries and teachers’colleges. The earliest forms of education that blacks received was from the missionaries to convert them toChristianity. The education of blacks was very low during the civil war, until Lincoln issued the EmancipationProclamation in 1863. The Department of Education was developed in 1867 to help start more effective schoolssystems. Howard University was developed in Washington D.C. for black youth “in the liberal arts and sciences.”The first public school day was in Boston in 1869.InventionsDuring the 1970s and 1980s there was a big battle going on of inventors trying to be the first to invent and patent thetelephone. The two inventors who took the lead parts in this battle were Alexander Graham Bell and Elisha Gray. Inthe year 1875, Alexander Graham Bell took a huge step towards this goal when he used an electromagnetic machineto transmit the sound of a steel reed. After this accomplishment, Bell took off and once he made his final prototype,he applied his patent to the patent office in Washington D.C., on February 14, 1876 along with two other inventors.