outcomes, i will then proceed to identify which factors have caused this differentiation. These differences are the models or approaches applied in the cases, the actors involved in them, the forces and drivers, the way in which land tenure and access are carried out, and finally we will have the differentiated impacts. I want to point out that the theoretical framework is linked when identifying those dynamics that build a framework for the comparative results for the research question. Moreover, they also reflect on the concepts and theories that are intertwined with the political and social situation of the country, as well as the dimensions and dynamics that are shifting and shaping the lands and rural spaces across the world. The final stage of the analysis is to move from the case materials to the theoretical implications of the comparisons. Here I will focus on what has actually found in the cases, and to relate each case to broader theoretical issues (Flick. 2009: 153). Both cases are presented along with their theories. For such purpose, I will firstly juxtapose two models; the unequal and conflictive with the social sustainability case which may enable us to understand the process that clashes with small-scale farming in the rural world. This clash triggers social and political conflicts and instability in the developing world. In the following chapter, I will proceed explain the differences I intend to highlight along with some final remarks of comparative analysis.
26 4. Honduras in context The potential in agriculture is high in this small country of Central America; however as in many developing countries, agriculture was largely abandoned as the state institutions that were directing its development were dismantled, and the support given to farmers removed (Oxfam, 2011). Honduras was stricken by neoliberal forces that swept away the country especially from the 80’s and 90’. This has had a particular effect on agriculture as the land reforms attempts have been thwarted and has turned into a more disrupting one in recent years. The land issue in Honduras has been at the core of the political, social and economic life. During recent decades, land ownership is linked to economic investment and development by companies owning large tracts of land and having a wide political clout, which allowed the term banana republic5to be related with Honduras. The land issue has triggered social conflict in this region, but it has extended its consequences into the political ground by provoking that President Manuel Zelaya, who promised to investigate the land rights issue, was removed in a coup in June 2009. Subsequently, in October 2010 36 small-scale farmers have been killed (Oxfam, 2011). The problem of a land tenure structure is central, first because Honduras has 75 percent of its rural population living in poverty and 63 percent of them in extreme poverty (IFAD, 2007). The land has experienced a process of concentration in few hands at the expense of hundreds of thousands of small-scale farmers who have been dispossessed and displaced. The growing limitation to access the land and
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