2The ion that had the most pronounced effect on heart rate wasYou correctly answered: potassium.3Ectopic pacemakers can be caused by excessive leakage of potassium into cardiac cells,resulting in pacemakers appearing in abnormal locations in the heart muscle. Thishyperkalemia(excess potassium) decreases the resting potential of the cardiac muscle cell.What effect do you think this would have on the force of contraction?You correctly answered: decrease, negative inotropic.4Describe the effect that increasing the calcium ions had on the heart in this activity. How welldid the results compare with your prediction?Your answer:Blood will move faster with an increase in heart rate and contraction pressure.1Describe the effect that increasing the potassium ions initially had on the heart in thisactivity. Relate this to the resting membrane potential of the cardiac muscle cell. How welldid the results compare with your prediction?2
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