Urban development can also have a dramatic impact on

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Urban development can also have a dramatic impact on the land. As new cities are built, room for them must be cleared. This clear- ing has been at the expense of wilderness areas and rain forests. hazardous waste 773 Lesson 2 Protecting Land and Water H AZARDOUS W ASTES Source/Activity That Generates Waste Arts and crafts (e.g., painting, building models) Dry cleaning Construction Vehicle maintenance Yardwork and gardening Household tasks Type of Waste Produced Solvents, paints, adhesives Solvents Oils, solvents, paints Solvents, paints, ignitable wastes, used oil and batteries Pesticides, herbicides, solvents Solvents, oils, cleaning materials, paints, paint thinner
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Disappearing Forests Developing nations in Central America, Africa, and Southeast Asia are rapidly expanding in agriculture and industry. These nations have been clearing tropical forests on a massive scale for fuel and to make way for farms and ranch land. This , or destruction of forests, has upset the fragile balance of nature. Aside from providing a home to countless plant and animal species, the world’s great forests play a vital part in controlling soil erosion, flooding, and sediment buildup in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. Deforestation interferes with these processes. It can also change regional patterns of rainfall as a result of altered rates of evaporation, transpiration (vapor exhaled from the surface of green plants), and runoff. Without trees, precipitation declines and the region grows hotter and drier. Ultimately, desertlike conditions prevail where there were once rich, tropical grasslands. Urban Sprawl The spreading of city development (houses, shopping centers, busi- nesses, and schools) onto undeveloped land is called As the land surrounding cities becomes developed, environmental problems can occur. Runoff from parking lots and fertilized lawns may contaminate the drinking water supply. Air quality worsens as increased automobile and lawnmower usage adds more engine exhaust to the air. To help address the problem of urban sprawl, city planners are rethinking the way suburbs are organized to help reduce consump- tion of natural resources and decrease the amount of pollution. In planned communities, schools and businesses are located within walking distance of homes, and sidewalks are required. Walking the short distances from home to work, school, or shopping provides physical activity for pedestrians, saves resources, and reduces pol- lution. The inclusion of efficient public transportation in these communities helps reduce the number of people driving to work. Consequently, fewer vehicles are on the highways, reducing both the level of pollution and the number of injuries and deaths caused by traffic accidents. Water Supplies and Pollution he EPA requires water suppliers to monitor and test water T before sending it through municipal and community water systems. If the water is contaminated, the supplier must shut down the system and fix the problem. No agencies monitor the quality of water coming from private wells, however. Water treatment and
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