as you move from the brain stem to the upper areas of the brain the complexity

As you move from the brain stem to the upper areas of

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as you move from the brain stem to the upper areas of the brain, the complexity of brain functions increases; Thalamus: sensory relay, consciousness; first ‘stop’ of received signals Hypothalamus: regulates basic biological needs- four f’s (fighting, fleeing, feeding, ‘sexual behaviors’) Pituitary Gland: hormonal regulation Amygdala: emotions and learning; located in temporal lobe Hippocampus: memory and learning; located in temporal lobe - Anterograde Amnesia: inability to form new memories 18-09-27 Lecture 7 Midterm Exam- Next Thursday; 65 multiple choice The Brain Stem and Cerebellum - Cerebellum: balance, coordination, motor learning - Medulla: heart rate, blood pressure, circulation, breathing - Reticular Formation & Pons: sleep and alertness *refer to figure 4.9 in textbook Neurons - Are cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information - Your nervous system contains as many as 100 billion neurons - The flow of information is an electrochemical process - Neurons in resting state have a net negative charge (about -70mV) - Movement caused by a greater concentration of positively charged ions outside the cell than inside Sodium and potassium play significant roles; sodium potassium pump; outside the cell membrane is + and the inside is -, so more sodium on the outside and potassium on the inside There are also large negatively charged protein molecules inside the cell - Ion channels are mostly closed when the neuron is at rest - When a neuron is stimulated (if the stimulation is strong enough to reach a threshold), ion channels open, allowing ions to flow through First, Na+ channels open and Na+ flows in, then K+ channels open and K+ flows out Myelinated Axons: Saltatory Conduction - Signal ‘jumps’ from one node of Ranvier (area of polarity reversal) to the next; speeds up conduction
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Action Potential - All-or-none law: a neuron either fires or doesn’t fire (there’s no in between) - Action potential is when the neuron fires; this is when the inside briefly becomes more positive and outside becomes more negative; - During an action potential, the charge reverses due to the movement of the ions; this brief reversal in charge moves down the axon in a wave - How is the strength of a stimulus conveyed? How many cells are firing; strong fire more, weak fire less Frequency of firing; quickly is strong, slow is weak Information Transmission Between Neurons - Terminal Buttons: synapses one the outside of a neuron; can be between 1000 and 10000 of these on each neuron - Chemical Messengers: neurotransmitters; pass on information from one neuron to the next - Synaptic Transmission: 1. Synthesis and storage of neurotransmitter molecules in synaptic vesicles 2. Release of neurotransmitter molecules into synaptic cleft 3. Binding of neurotransmitters at receptor sites on postsynaptic membrane 4. Inactivation (by enzymes) or removal (drifting away) of neurotransmitters 5. Reuptake or neurotransmitters sponged up by the presynaptic neuron - Binding can have two results: Excitatory Signal:
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