Acute inflammation is an immediate response to

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Acute inflammation is an immediate response to cellular injury. Rapid vasodilationoccurs, allowing more blood near the location of the injury. The increase in local blood flow causes the redness andlocalized warmth at the site of inflammation.Inflammatory exudates –Accumulation of fluid, dead tissue cells, and WBCs forms an exudate at the site ofinflammation. Exudate may beserous(clear, like plasma),sanguineous(containing red blood cells), orpurulent(containing WBCs and bacteria).Tissue repair- When there is injury to tissue cells, healing involves the defensive, reconstructive, and maturativestages (see Chapter 48). Damaged cells eventually are replaced with healthy new cells.Health Care–Associated InfectionsPatients in health care settings, especially hospitals and long-term care facilities, have an increased risk of acquiringinfections.Health care–associated infections (HAIs)result from the delivery of health services in a health care facility.The term nosocomial is used specifically to indicate something originating or taking place in a hospital.They occur as theresult of invasive procedures, antibiotic administration, the presence ofmultidrug-resistant organisms(MDROs), andbreaks in infection prevention and control activities.
HAI infections are either exogenous or endogenous. Anexogenous infectioncomes from microorganisms found outsidethe individual, such asSalmonella, Clostridium tetani,andAspergillus.These microorganisms do not exist as normalfloras. Anendogenous infectionoccurs when part of the patient's flora becomes altered and an overgrowth results (e.g.,staphylococci, enterococci,yeasts, and streptococci). This often happens when a patient receives broad-spectrumantibiotics that alter the normal floras.Iatrogenic infectionsare a type of HAI caused by an invasive diagnostic ortherapeutic procedure. For example, procedures such as a bronchoscopy and treatment with broad-spectrum antibioticsincrease the risk for certain infections (Arnold, 2014; Day, 2014).Sites for and Causes of Health Care–Associated InfectionsUrinaryTract• Unsterile insertion of urinary catheter• Improper positioning of the drainage tubing• Open drainage system• Catheter and tube becoming disconnected• Drainage bag port touching contaminated surface• Improper specimen collection technique• Obstructing or interfering with urinary drainage• Urine in catheter or drainage tube being allowed to reenter bladder (reflux)• Repeated catheter irrigations• Improper perineal hygieneSurgical orTraumaticWoundsImproper skin preparation before surgery (e.g., shaving versus clipping hair; not performing apreoperative bath or shower)Failure to clean skin surface properlyFailure to use aseptic technique during operative procedures and dressing changes • Useof contaminated antiseptic solutionsRespiratoryTractContaminated respiratory therapy equipmentFailure to use aseptic technique while suctioning airway • Improper disposalof secretionsBloodstream• Contamination of intravenous (IV) fluids by tubing• Insertion of drug additives to IV fluid• Addition of connecting tube or stopcocks to IV system• Improper care of needle insertion site• Contaminated needles or catheters• Failure to change IV access at first sign of infection or at recommended intervals• Improper technique during administration of multiple blood products

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Term
Fall
Professor
Atty. Gil

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