Microbes and Human Disease Bacteria were once classified as plants giving rise

Microbes and human disease bacteria were once

  • Montgomery College
  • BIOL 210
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Microbes and Human Disease ! Bacteria were once classified as plants giving rise to use of the term flora for microbes. ! This term has been replaced by microbiota . ! Microbes normally present in and on the human body are called normal microbiota .
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Infectious Diseases ! When a pathogen overcomes the host ³ s resistance, disease results. ! Emerging infectious diseases ( EID ): New diseases and diseases increasing in incidence.
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Emerging Infectious Diseases ! West Nile encephalitis ! West Nile virus ! First diagnosed in the West Nile region of Uganda in 1937 ! Appeared in New York City in 1999
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Emerging Infectious Diseases ! Bovine spongiform encephalopathy ! Prion ! Also causes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) ! New variant CJD in humans is related to cattle fed sheep for protein
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Emerging Infectious Diseases ! Escherichia coli O57:H7 ! Toxin-producing strain of E. coli ! First seen in 1982 ! Leading cause of diarrhea worldwide
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Emerging Infectious Diseases ! Invasive group A Streptococcus ! Rapidly growing bacteria that cause extensive tissue damage ! Increased incidence since 1995
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Emerging Infectious Diseases ! Ebola hemorrhagic fever ! Ebola virus ! Causes fever, hemorrhaging, and blood clotting ! First identified near Ebola River, Congo ! Outbreaks every few years
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Emerging Infectious Diseases ! Avian influenza A ! Influenza A virus (H5N2) ! Primarily in waterfowl and poultry ! Sustained human-to-human transmission has not occurred yet
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Emerging Infectious Diseases ! Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) ! SARS-associated Coronavirus ! Occurred in 2002-2003 ! Person-to-person transmission
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Emerging Infectious Diseases ! Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) ! Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ! First identified in 1981 ! Worldwide epidemic infecting 44 million people; 14,000 new infections every day ! Sexually transmitted disease affecting males and females ! In the United States, HIV/AIDS cases: 30% are female and 75% are African American
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Emerging Infectious Diseases ! Cryptosporidiosis ! Cryptosporidium protozoa ! First reported in 1976 ! Causes 30% of diarrheal illness in developing countries ! In the United States, transmitted via water
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