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Microbes and Human Disease !Bacteria were once classified as plants giving rise to use of the term florafor microbes. !This term has been replaced by microbiota. !Microbes normally present in and on the human body are called normal microbiota.
Infectious Diseases !When a pathogen overcomes the host³s resistance, disease results. !Emerging infectious diseases (EID): New diseases and diseases increasing in incidence.
Emerging Infectious Diseases !West Nile encephalitis !West Nile virus !First diagnosed in the West Nile region of Uganda in 1937 !Appeared in New York City in 1999
Emerging Infectious Diseases !Bovine spongiform encephalopathy !Prion !Also causes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) !New variant CJD in humans is related to cattle fed sheep for protein
Emerging Infectious Diseases !Escherichia coliO57:H7 !Toxin-producing strain of E. coli!First seen in 1982 !Leading cause of diarrhea worldwide
Emerging Infectious Diseases !Invasive group A Streptococcus!Rapidly growing bacteria that cause extensive tissue damage !Increased incidence since 1995
Emerging Infectious Diseases !Ebola hemorrhagic fever !Ebola virus !Causes fever, hemorrhaging, and blood clotting !First identified near Ebola River, Congo !Outbreaks every few years
Emerging Infectious Diseases !Avian influenza A !Influenza A virus (H5N2) !Primarily in waterfowl and poultry !Sustained human-to-human transmission has not occurred yet
Emerging Infectious Diseases !Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) !Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) !First identified in 1981 !Worldwide epidemic infecting 44 million people; 14,000 new infections every day !Sexually transmitted disease affecting males and females !In the United States, HIV/AIDS cases: 30% are female and 75% are African American
Emerging Infectious Diseases !Cryptosporidiosis !Cryptosporidiumprotozoa !First reported in 1976 !Causes 30% of diarrheal illness in developing countries !In the United States, transmitted via water