Diarrhea clients at increased risk are young children

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Diarrhea: Clients at increased risk are young children and older adults.Constipation: Clients at increased risk are young children and older adults. In addition, clients with disabilities, immobility, or such chronic diseases as multiple sclerosis and diabetes are at increased risk.Fecal incontinence: Clients at increased risk are young children and older adults. Women are also at increased risk, especially after childbearing.Alterations and Prevention: Prevention
Some of the modifiable risk factors for urinary elimination alterations are obesity,7 8 pregnancy, urinary tract infections, consumption of bladder irritants, and constipation. In addition, some medical conditions, medical procedures, and pharmacologic treatments can be risk factors.Some of the modifiable risk factors for bowel elimination alterations are a poor diet (low in fiber and fluids); long-term use of certain medications; travel to foreign countries; and poor hygiene. Lower socioeconomic status and lower educational level are additional risk factors.Basic verbal screening of clients at checkups is necessary because there are no standard screening procedures for urinary or bowel problems.Prevention of Elimination AlterationsUrinaryBowelMaintain healthy weightExercise regularlyPractice good toileting habits: avoid delayed voiding and defecation; use pelvic floor muscles to force urine flow.Eat a diet high in fiberConsume adequate amounts of fluidWash hands after contact with fecal matterCook, store, and handle food correctlyDrink bottled water and avoid raw fruit, vegetables, and meat when traveling abroad
Avoid smokingAvoid bladder irritants: alcohol, caffeine, and other highly acidic beveragesDo Kegel exercises, which help pregnant women maintain urinary muscle strength9Stay activeConsume adequate amounts of fluid and fiberClients at risk of constipation cantake daily laxatives or stool softenersAssessment: Nursing AssessmentUrinary Elimination AssessmentA nurse assessing a client’s urinary function should be sure to interview the client about voiding patterns and frequency of urination. The nurse should inquire about the appearance of the urine, andwhether the client has noticed any recent changes in urine output or is experiencing any difficulties in voiding.Click here to learn more about the assessment interview for urinary elimination.A nursing assessment also includes performing a physical assessment of the client.Click here to learn more about urinary assessment.Bowel Elimination AssessmentWhen assessing the client’s gastrointestinal function, the nurse should ask the client about fecal elimination patterns and the nature of the fecal contents (hard, soft, formed, or semiformed). The nurse needs to assess all factors that influence gastrointestinal function, such as food and fluid intake, level of activity, stress level, recent illness or surgery, and medication use.

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