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ECE _DSST _ Human Resource MGMT

Without proper appraisal training the rater may well

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Without proper appraisal training, the rater may well rate all the employees as average, thereby making the error of central tendency. These raters do not like to rate any employee too high or too low, so they aim for the average. The leniency or strictness error in appraising occurs when raters like to give very high or very low ratings. This sort of error and occurs when managers think too highly (leniency error) or too little (strictness error) of the employees they are rating.
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In a performance appraisal, the recency error occurs when the rater gives a higher rating to the employee than is deserved based on recent good performance, whereas the contrast error happens when the rater’s assessment is biased in a positive or negative manner due to a comparison with the previous employee appraised. This kind of mistake can be minimized if the appraiser has full details of the employee’s work record for the period in question. When the rater gives the employee an inflated rating because of a personal connection, then the similar-to-me error occurs. This connection need not be one of friendship. The rater and employee may have certain things in common, such as race, religion, home town etc and these factors may affect the rating given by the rater. The three methods for conducting performance appraisals are the trait methods, behavior methods and results methods. The trait methods are generally the most popular even though it can be considered subjective. They measure characteristics that are considered desirable for that job such as creativity, leadership etc. The four trait approaches for appraising performance are the graphic rating-scale method, mixed-standard scale method, forced-choice method and essay method. With the essay method, the rater writes up a statement that describes the employee’s behavior to list his or her strong and weak points and suggest ideas for improvement. The graphic rating-scale method rates employees according to a scale of characteristics whereas the mixed-standard scale method employs a scale which compares employees’ performance and behavior. Each characteristic is graded according to a scale in which the rater compares the degree to which the employee possesses that characteristic in his or her job performance. For example, under "Knowledge of work" the rater could select "needs guidance" or "possesses knowledge" or "possesses considerable knowledge". When a rater has to select between limited options to describe the employee’s job performance, then the trait system being used is the forced-choice method. The rater is forced to make a choice, usually from two statements; not knowing which choice describes the favorable or unfavorable job behavior. The behavioral methods of performance appraisal are the critical incident method, behavioral checklist method, behavioral anchored rating scale (BARS) and behavior observation scales (BOS).
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