12. Reconstruction a.Presidential and Radical Reconstruction i.Republicans:They believed that the states of the former Confederacy never left the U.S. They were not committed to slave’s voting rights, but had a free-soil platform. (ex: Lincoln) ii.Radical Republicans: They advocated for slave’s voting rights and their ability to gain land. They believed that the states of former Confederacy left the U.S and that traitors would not lead state government. iii.Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan:The 10% Plan allowed former Confederate states to re-enter the union when 10% if it’s population swore an oath of loyalty to the U.S. and ratified the 13th amendment, ending slavery. Lincoln established Freedmen’s Bureau. iv.Freedmen’s Bureau: This intended to provide social, educational, and economic services as well as advice and protection to former slaves. This provided housing and established schools for African American children. v.Presidential Reconstruction:Andrew Johnson wanted to return full rights to former Confederate states, but still abolish slavery in these Areas. He was lenient towards the South and was supported by several Radical Republicans (before the Johnson Plan was est). vi.The Johnson Plan:This intended to restore all land taken by the Union Army. However, major confederate officials and individuals who owned more than $20,000 in taxable property had to seek individual presidential pardons. Johnson had little interest in political rights for slaves. This plan failed because members of confederacy were hired for Congress and allowed the return of “antebellum South.” vii.Congressional (Radical) Reconstruction:The Radical-dominated Congress controlled Reconstruction policy and intended to protect the rights of former slaves. They opposed and overthrew Presidential Reconstruction. Radicals wanted to limit Johnson’s power as president, which led to his impeachment. Congress undermined Presidential Reconstruction by refusing to seat the Congressional delegates from the former Confederate States. b.Southern state governments: aspirations, achievements, failures: i.The South hoped to reconstruct state government and rebuild economy. Johnson was lenient towards the South as long as they established the 13th amendment, which ended slavery.
ii.The Result of the Johnson Plan: Former Confederate States were readmitted as they ratified the 13th Amendment. State governments were organized in the South. These governments began passing laws that limit black rights (ex: voting rights). iii.The Black Codes: They were laws that denied many rights of citizenship to free blacks and to control black labor, mobility, and employment. Hunting, fishing, free grazing of livestock, owning a gun, and taxation of guns at high rates were illegal for African-Americans. iv.40 Acres and a Mule: Sherman provided 40-acre parcels of land for black families. They were taken from the plantations of owners in active rebellion. c.Role of African Americans in politics, education, and the economy i.