LIN200 Week 15 Day 2+ - final exam review

Trying to influence the use of languages in a

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Trying to influence the use of languages in a community is called language planning . “Official institutional support” is one aspect of language vitality , so it has some influence, but not total control, over what happens to a language and how it is used.
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What is the difference between a Pidgin and a Creole? Pidgin Formed when speakers of two or more mutually unintelligible languages need to communicate The languages in contact must not be closely related Has norms of pronunciation, meaning, and grammar, but is not completely regular Creole n Formed when a pidgin becomes a native language of children n Has phonological rules, regular grammatical rules, complex embedding n Has a pidgin in its ancestry
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How are pidgins and creoles formed? Superstrate : the socially dominant language. Most vocabulary comes from the superstrate language ( lexifier language ). Used inside the syntax of the substrate. Substrate : socially subordinate language(s). Most grammatical structures come from the substrate language(s).
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What is Bickerton’s bioprogram theory? The language bioprogram theory is a theory arguing that the structural similarities between different creole languages cannot be explained only by their superstrate and substrate languages. Derek Bickerton claimed that creolization occurs when “the linguistic exposure of children in a community consists solely of a highly unstructured pidgin.” The children use their innate language capacity to change the pidgin, which typically has great syntactic variation, into a language with a more structured grammar. The grammars of creoles may be similar because this ability to transform is universal.
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What is Decreolization? Movement of a creole language towards the standard language (the lexifier) through education. Hi bin kawl mi ap He called me up. Hi haed chro om aut. He threw them out. This usually happens as a result of cultural and socioeconomic shifts that make it possible for creole speakers to go to school and have greater contact with the standard language and expanded job opportunities.
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Is African American English a decreolized creole? AAE is not a creole language even though it has features in common with creoles (copula absence; verbal markers like habitual ‘be’) Creolists say this is because it has creole origins, but only on large plantations in the South. A creole probably never formed among people of African origin who lived in large northern cities like Boston, New York and Philadelphia because they had much more contact with native speakers of English and had more opportunities for education. Anglicists say that AAE was never a creole; its origins lie in earlier regional dialects of American English.
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What is ASL?
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