Glencoe Health 2005.pdf

Ou cant see it but the teen in the picture is waging

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ou can’t see it, but the teen in the picture is waging Y a battle. The battle is not against other players who are trying to score a point. It’s a battle to fight off the pathogens that constantly attack his body. Every day, 24 hours a day, your body is exposed to millions of pathogens. Most of the time, your body manages to stay free of infection because of your immune system. The is a network of cells, tissues, organs, and chemicals that fights off pathogens . Physical and Chemical Barriers hysical and chemical barriers make up your body’s first line of P defense, as shown in Figure 24.2 on page 628. They protect system immune Have you ever had a small cut or other injury that became red or painful or developed pus? Write a few paragraphs describing what the area of injury looked like over several days. 627 Lesson 2 Preventing Communicable Diseases Compare the protective equipment worn by this goalie to your physical and chemical barriers. How might behaviors such as wearing appropriate safety equipment help protect you from pathogens?
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against a wide variety of invaders. Physical barriers, such as skin and mucous membranes, block pathogens from invading your body. Chemical barriers, such as enzymes in tears, destroy pathogens. The Immune System he immune system has two major defense strategies. The T inflammatory response is general, or nonspecific; it works against all types of pathogens. Specific defenses work against par- ticular pathogens. Together, these defenses work to prevent disease. The Inflammatory Response The is a reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection. Its purpose is to prevent further tissue injury and to halt invading pathogens. Suppose that a splinter enters your finger. Your body immediately reacts to the damage caused by the splinter and to any pathogens on the splinter. If you’ve ever had the area around an injury become hot, swollen, red, and painful, you’ve experienced the inflammatory response. inflammatory response 628 Chapter 24 Communicable Diseases Skin is the first line of defense against many patho- gens. Few pathogens can pass through the tough layer of dead skin cells that surrounds the body. Tears and saliva contain enzymes that destroy or disable many pathogens. Mucous membranes line many parts of the body, including your mouth, nose, and bronchial tubes. Cells in these membranes produce mucus , a sticky substance that traps pathogens. The mucus then carries the trapped pathogens to other areas of the body for disposal. Cilia , the hairlike projections that line parts of the respiratory system, sweep mucus and pathogens to the throat, where they can be swallowed or coughed out. Gastric juice in the stomach destroys many pathogens that enter the body through the nose and mouth.
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