102 7 requirements validation and negotiation

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102 7 Requirements Validation and Negotiation Preparation of the validation The following preparations have to be made in order to validate requirements by means of prototypes: Manual/instructions: The users of the prototype must be supplied with the necessary information so that they can use or apply the prototype. This can be done by means of a manual or by means of proper instruc- tion. Validation scenarios: Validation scenarios that the users of the proto- type can perform with the prototype should be prepared. A validation scenario defines, for example, all relevant data sets or user interactions. Checklist with validation criteria: For requirements validation, a check- list of validation criteria should be created according to which the pro- totype (and by proxy, the requirements) can be validated. Performing the validation The auditor should validate the prototype without being influenced; i.e., the auditor should execute the validation scenarios independently and by herself. This ensures that the validation results are created without bias. During validation, the auditors can and ought to execute alternative and deviant scenarios and should use the prototype exploratively and experimentally once the required validation scenarios have been covered. For example, error cases that have remained hidden until then can be identified. For experimental validation of the prototype, the auditor needs to know the scope of the prototype, i.e., the set of requirements that have been considered when the prototype was created. Without knowledge of the implemented requirements, an auditor cannot decide whether an identified error can be traced back to a missing requirement or if the requirement has been consciously omitted in the prototype. Documentation of the validation results Requirements validation through prototypes therefore permits two types of result documentation: Protocol of the auditor: The auditor documents the results and experi- ences made during the validation of the prototype, e.g., by means of validation scenarios as well as a checklist that he has been supplied with. Observation protocol: The auditor can be observed by a second person. The second person creates a so-called observation protocol. This protocol can disclose additional important symptoms for errors in requirements. For example, when the auditor hesitates at a certain step in the validation scenario while using the prototype and the observer
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7.5 Requirements Validation Techniques 103 documents this, it may be an indication for missing apparentness and as such an indication for impaired understandability of the prototype. Under certain circumstances, it may be advisable to record the valida- tion on video because the validation situation can be analyzed in detail during the follow-up. For example, a video recording can show the realization of requirements pertaining to anthropometric properties (such as ergonomics) or intuitive use and can be investigated in detail.
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