Be careful though, writers don't want the other side of the argument to sound better than his/her own. One way of avoiding this is by answering or countering any of the points the other argument has. Refutation paragraphs are in the body of the essay. It can be one of the first body paragraphs, it can be one of the middle body paragraphs, or it can be one of the last. The placement of the refutation paragraph depends on the logical organization of the essay, and writers need to develop a clear outline in order to decide where the refutation
section will be placed. The refutation paragraphs typically have: Introduce the Opposing Argument Acknowledge parts of the opposition that are valid Counter the Argument Introduce the Conclusion Introduce the Opposing Argument The writer summarizes the opposition's viewpoint openly and honestly. Ignoring the opposition is futile in that the audience is aware of the opposing arguments and will doubt the credibility of a presentation that chooses to ignore the opposition rather than deal with it. Ways writers can begin: But _______ is not completely inaccurate. It is often argued that... It is true that... Opposing views claim...
Acknowledge parts of the opposition that are valid The writer acknowledges that some of the opposition's claims may be valid, but the writer still shows that his own claims are stronger . The strength of the writer's claims are more convincing than the opposing viewpoints. A writer might explain the opposition's weakest points, contrasting them with his argument's strongest points. Ways writers can begin: Admittedly, Certainly, Of course, One cannot deny that... At the same time... Counter the Argument Introduce the rebuttal of the concession argument. The writer refutes the opposition's claims showing they are incorrect or inconsequential--not a real problem. Ways writers can begin: Nevertheless, However, On the other hand, But... Introduce the Conclusion The conclusion should summarize why the counter argument is not a sufficient solution.
Ways writers can begin Thus, Therefore, As a result, Sometimes writers might just want to restate his/her position simply. For more information about refutation/concession paragraphs visit: How to Write a Concession Paragraph
2 Sample Refutation Paragraph s (Each these samples have 2-paragraph refutation; some essays may only have a 1 paragraph refutation while other essays, like research papers, may require a much longer refutation) Charter Schools Vs. Public Schools (School Choice) By Mark Liles Thesis: School choice turns out to not only be a bad idea; it’s also a violation of our constitution. Refutation: ... [Introduce Opposing Arguments] Considering the many challenges facing public schools, it’s understandable that many people would be eager to pursue new options. Supporters of school choice point out that under the current public school system, parents with economic means already exercise school choice by moving from areas with failing or dangerous schools to neighborhoods with better, safer schools. Their
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