As soon as wine was taken out of the barrel it was exposed to air and it would

As soon as wine was taken out of the barrel it was

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As soon as wine was taken out of the barrel, it was exposed to air and it would oxidize. T hat’s why in France they say Quand le vin est ire il faut le boire » It was only about the 17 th century that the cork was discovered. It was a major breakthrough in terms of the safe aging of wine. The cork comes from a particular type of oak trees. Over the next 100 years, the shape of wine bottles has changed. They went from short/ wide bottles to tall/elongated bottles. The change in design was due to development of the cork that led to the use of bottles to age wine Video 4 A major improvement: wine could be aged (because now it could be preserved properly). But unfortunately, around the turn of the last century, in the late 1800s, disaster struck the French wine growing region; the phylloxera. The phylloxera is an insect that actually feeds on the root of the vine, sucks away the juices and the energy from the vine. As a result, the vine dies.
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CHEM 181 Winter 2019 Malka A-r 97 It s only later that Dr. Gustave Foex, a French doctor, actually was able to find a way to restore the wine growing region of France. He had the idea of taking American vine roots (that can resist the phylloxera), and to graft on these roots the French variety. They made some weird statue in remembrance of him. But many French don’t want to admit that they owe their wine to the Americans (la fierté wesh). The variety of vine used before the phylloxera are no longer available, so basically all the vines in France are really from America (big oof). Interestingly enough though, that variety in available in Chile! Before the phylloxera hit France, some of the varieties were transplanted to Chile and the phylloxera never hit Chile. For example, one particular variety, the Carmenere which is found in Chile, is from before what Bordeaux wine was before the phyllorexa. Wine Production First, of course, you need grapes! White grapes White wine Red grapes Red wine and white wine! In order to make white wine from red grapes, you have to make sure that the juice does not come into contact with the skin because the colour actually comes from the skin. The making of wine is actually the fermentation of sugars present inside the grape. In order for fermentation to take place, it has to come into contact with yeast. The sugar is inside the grape. The yeast is at the surface. Therefore, the grape has to be crushed to come into contact with the sugar-containing juices. In the fermentation process, sugars such as sucrose (glucose and fructose) are converted under the influence of yeast to produce carbon dioxide and ethanol. Interestingly enough, this is the same idea as in the making of bread. But in the making of bread, the sugars are converted to produce CO2 that allows the bread to rise (remember when we talked about baking soda!).
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