Cultivating+the+Opinionated+Postprint.doc

Crime drama and participants had to indicate their

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crime drama, and participants had to indicate their viewing volume (on television, computer, tablet computer,…) on a seven-point scale (from “never” (0) to “(almost) every day”(6)). To obtain an estimate of crime drama viewing frequency, answers to the two items were summed ( M = 3.51; SD = 2.90). The measure for non-fiction viewing was a composite of three program types that often portray crime-related non-fiction content (news, documentaries, and criminal investigation programs comparable to America’s Most Wanted or the British Crimewatch ). Responses to the separate items were summed to create an index of crime-related non-fiction viewing frequency ( M = 6.35; SD = 3.68). Moderator Levels of NTE were assessed using the authorized [deleted for blinding] translation of the original 16-item NTE scale (Hermans, 1997; Jarvis & Petty, 1996; sample item:
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NEED TO EVALUATE MODERATES CULTIVATION EFFECTS 14 “I form opinions about everything”). Responses were on a five-point scale ranging from “extremely uncharacteristic” (0) to “extremely characteristic” (4). Cronbach’s alpha was .82 ( M = 2.23 ; SD = .53). Covariates Control variables for gender (“male” = 0, “female” = 1) and age were assessed through a closed- and open-ended question, respectively. Total television viewing was measured using sliders. For each day of the week, respondents had to indicate how many hours they watched television programs or movies (on a traditional TV screen, computer, tablet computer,…). The endpoints of the sliders were zero and eight (or more) hours. Within this range, participants could estimate their viewing volume with an accuracy of fifteen minutes. An estimate of daily television exposure was obtained by averaging viewing time across all days ( M = 2.31; SD = 1.43). To assess personal and indirect experience with crime, we asked four questions from a study by Gross and Aday (2003, p. 418-419): (1) “Have you ever personally been a victim of a violent crime?”; (2) “During the past year, have you personally been a victim of a property crime such as having your house or car broken into?”; (3) “Has a close friend or family member become a victim of a violent crime?”; (4) “During the past year, has one of your neighbors been a victim of a property crime?”. Response options were ”yes” (1) and “no” (0). We used the 18-item version of the NFC scale (Cacioppo et al, 1982; sample item: “I find satisfaction in deliberating hard and for long hours”). The five-point scale ranged from “completely disagree” (0) to “completely agree” (4) (Cronbach’s α = .84; M = 2.07; SD = .50). Analyses Ordinary least squares regression models were tested using SPSS v. 22. To calculate and graphically represent Johnson-Neyman regions of significance, Hayes’ (2013) PROCESS macro was used. Prior to the analyses variables involved in interaction terms were mean centered. This
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NEED TO EVALUATE MODERATES CULTIVATION EFFECTS 15 was done to allow a substantive interpretation of their regression coefficients when an interaction term was also included in the model (i.e., the conditional relationship between the independent
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