Fiebach and Friederici (2003): review of neuroimaging research, cumulative evidence does not support the assumption of a specific RH involvement during the processing of concrete relative to abstract words. Participants are shown concrete and abstract words (1-2 letters randomly replaced). Then given a lexical decision task : indicate whether each stimulus is a word or not (allows to compare functional brain images to abstract and concrete words ) Results : abstract and concrete words elicited different patterns of activity in the LH Concrete words did not elicit heightened activity in the RH. Conclusion: hypothesis that concrete word yield greater LH activation than abstract words = not supported. Imagery and mnemonics Mnemonic techniques : procedures used to aid memory Imagery used as a mnemonic technique since ancient times Method of loci : A mnemonic technique based on places and images Learn the loci first, usually places in a building (dissimilar, fait distance apart). Learned over and over again. Having a cognitive map of the building, invent images to stand for material to be remembered Each image is placed in a particular locus, images have to be as distinctive as possible. Memory consists of mentally strolling through the loci and collect images stored there. Bizarre imagery : hypothesis that bizarre images facilitate recall. • Central part of mnemonic technique is the process of relating images to particular locations • Items interrelated to form units are more easily remembered than are items not so unified. Effectiveness may be due to ability to organize disparate items into meaningful units. Distinctiveness: The hypothesis that the more distinctive the item, the easier it is to recall. Imagery and distinctiveness • Bizareness can have an effect under certain circumstances: remember bizarre items better when they occur along with common items (E.g., The maid licked ammonia off the table) Von restorff effect : If one item in a set is different from the others, it will be more likely to be recalled. different is a relative and not an absolute property! Humour and distinctiveness Schmidt (2002): similar effect with humorous items. 3 sets of cartoons shown to participants: 1.set of literal items created by eliminating info in the cartoons to make them humourless. 2. set of weird cartoons to which irrelevant elements were added. 3. Set of humorous cartoons Results : More accurate description of Humourous cartoons than literal/weird ones if given mixed list to remember. List of only humorous items: descriptions generally not better • Humour may be a strong aid to memory, especially if humourous material is contrasted with neutral material. The problem of distinctiveness • Storing things in a special place: people believe that they can remember things better if they make the material distinctive.
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- Spring '09
- Mental image, Dual-coding theory