occupational information; however, these guidance workers received no training and were expected to complete teaching obligations (Lambie, 2004; Studer, 2015). In the early 1900s systemic guidance programs introduced lessons on communication, character development, and career interests in the school curriculum as concern rose for students entering the workforce unprepared (Studer, 2015). As more laws were passed the guidance worker’s role changed in response to the USSR’sSputnik launch congress passed the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) and the 1975 Educational Act for all Handicapped Children created another role for guidance workers (Lambie, 2004; Studer, 2015). School counselors were assigned the task of testing and assessing students as issues arose concerning students with special needs and mandated testing was implemented (Studer, 2015). In the 1980s career guidance and counseling programs were extended to all students in order to aid in developing skills to identify future occupations. By the 1990s legislation was introduced that mandated counseling, career awareness, and exploration to begin “as early as possible but no later than the seventh grade, with initial career
THE IDENTITY OF PROFESSIONAL4selection to begin no later than the eleventh grade” (Studer, 2015). Counselors became more responsible for students’ educational success as well as career preparation. With multiple roles being created for school counselors, stakeholders, teachers, and counselors were confused about the exact role of the professional school counselor.In response to the confusion concerning the responsibilities and roles of the professional school counselor, the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) was formed to implementregulations and standards for all school counselors (ASCA, 2012; Studer, 2015). Prior to the 1950s school counselors had limited means of training and collaboration (Lambie, 2004). Harvard had offered a summer course in 1911 which evolved into a yearlong credit applied to an associate’s degree (Studer, 2015). However the formation of ASCA provided school counselors with strategies for professional development (Lambie, 2004). Counseling groups merged to formthe American Personnel and Guidance Association, now known as the American Counseling Association (ACA), with multiple specialization groups including ASCA which advocates for school counselors (Studer, 2015). The role of the school counselor once defined by stakeholder is now defined by ASCA (ASCA, 2014). According to ASCA (2014), every student should benefit from school counselingprograms which is ensured by a comprehensive and developmental school counseling (CDSC) programs in which school counselors “provided counseling services, collaboration, and consultation to students, faculty and staff” (Lambie, 2004; Studer, 2015). School counselors promote student achievement as they have been held accountable for the success of students (Perkins et al., 2010; Studer, 2015). By designing and delivering a CDSC counselors work to aidstudents in academic, personal/social, and career issues (ASCA, 2012; Lambie, 2004).
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