Ionization Energy Energy required to remove an electron from an atom Decreases

Ionization energy energy required to remove an

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Ionization Energy: Energy required to remove an electron from an atom. - Decreases: Down a family - Higher shielding effect and atomic radius result in a more loosely held electron. - Increases: Across a period (L to R) - Higher effective nuclear charge, electrons are held more tightly. - Electron arrangement, electrons are closer to an octet. Electron Affinity: The attraction of an atom for an electron and its likelihood in keeping/holding it. - Decreases: Down a family - Increased electron shielding and atomic radius = lower pull from the nucleus. - Increases: Across a period (L to R) - Atoms are smaller. TRENDS SHOULD BE EXPLAINED WITH; 1. Effective Nuclear Charge: As the number of protons in the nucleus increases, the amount of positive charge attracting the negative charge on the valence electrons increases. 2. Electron Shielding: Inner electron shells repel (shield) outer electron shells. 3. Electron Repulsion: Electrons on the same orbital will repel each other slightly. Electronegativity Chart Ex. Al and S O and O Fr and F Al - 1.6 O - 3.4 Fr - 0.7 S - 2.6 O - 3.4 F - 4.0 ΔEN = 1.0 ΔEN = 0 ΔEN = 3.3
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Polar Covalent Non-polar Covalent Ionic Ionic / Covalent Bonding & Lewis Structures ** Always check if it’s ionic or covalent ** - All atoms are most stable with an electron configuration like the nobel gasses (full octet) Metal: Na + Energy [ ] + e- Non-metal: Cl + Energy [ ] + e- Forming an Ionic Compound: Na + Cl [ Na ] + [ Cl ] - Covalent Bonds: - Electrons are shared between atoms in order to gain stable electron configuration, full octet. - Shared electrons exist as pairs called bonds. Diatomic Molecules: Br 2 , I 2 , Cl 2 , H 2 , O 2 , F 2 , N 2 Equation for number of bonds; Carbon 1 x 4 electrons (-) 4e- Hydrogen 4 x 4 electrons (-) +4e- *************** ***************** ** ************************ 8e-
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