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• Alarm Phase: The threat is perceived and the nervous system is triggered for survival.• Resistance Phase: Body tries to recover and revert back to the state of physiological calm or homeostasis, by resisting the alarm.• Exhaustion Phase: Final stage in which one or more target organs show signs of dysfunction.frustration in any situation which the pursuit of some goal is thwarted fight or flight response A physiological reaction to threat in which the autonomic nervous system mobilizes the organism for attacking (fight) or fleeing (flight) an enemy defense mechanismsLargely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt coping refers to active efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands created by stress constructive coping Relatively healthful efforts that people make to deal with stressful events. conflict When two or more incompatible motivations or behavioural impulses compete for expression chronic stressors Threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no readily apparent time limit ex. Credit card debt, caring for a sick family member over a period of yearscatharsis Freud: refers to the release of emotional tensioncatastrophic thinking Albert Ellis: involves unrealistically negative appraisals of stress that exaggerate the magnitude of one’s problems
burnout Physical and emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and a lowered sense of self efficacy that can be brought on gradually by chronic work related stress biopsychosocial model Holds that physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, ,and sociocultural factors. avoidance-avoidance conflicta choice must be made between two unattractive goalsapproach-avoidance conflictA choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects approach-approach conflictA choice must be made between two attractive goals aggressionAny behaviour that is intended to hurt someone, either physically or verbally acute stressorsThreatening events that have a relatively short duration and a clear endpoint ex. Exam, home threatened by flooding, encounter with drunk person acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)A disorder in which the immune system is gradually weaken and eventually disabled by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)Define stress. Discuss the relationship between the severity of stress and its effects. (pp. 536-537)Stress is a physiological and mental response to triggers. IT involves circumstances that are perceived as threatening. The experience of feeling stressed depends on what events one notices and how one chooses to appraise or interpret them. Events that are stressful for one person may be routine for another. People are not objective in their appraisals, Stress lies in the eye of the beholder. An individual's response to a stressor is a function of a number of factors such as age and gender, and the individuals previous experience with stress. Stresses are cumulative which can cause a greater strain that what one would expect from minor stresses.