An ISA permits multiple implementations that may vary in performance physical

An isa permits multiple implementations that may vary

This preview shows page 17 - 20 out of 22 pages.

that may vary in performance, physical size, and monetary cost because the ISA serves as the interface between software and hardware. It is concerned with the set or collection of basic operations the computer must support. All the inputs, data and address can be derived from ISAlevel in our design. Here, input denotes operation signals and address denotes pointer for the input values.
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TASK 1: A processor (CPU) is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basicinstructionsthatdrive a computer.Processors can be found in PCs, smartphones, tablets and other computers. Thetwo main competitors in the processor market areIntelandAMD. Both Intel and AMDcompanies are producing processors within striking distance of one another on nearly every front— price, power, and performance.Intelchips tend to offer better performance per core,butAMDis compensating with more cores at a given price and better onboard graphics. BothAMD and Intel CPUs are built on different circuitry. The unique features of each CPU brand are discussed below: IMD ProcessorAn important feature of AMD processorsis advance clock calibration, which alters the internalsettings of the computer by allowing individual settings of the core and the CPU. AMD overdriveallows for the real time adjustments in the systems, virtualization , which is known as the virtualextension of AMD 86 processors. Cool and quiet is another promising feature of AMDprocessors which allows for low voltage and power utilization and hence low temperature of thePC. Enhanced virus protection is also an interesting feature of today’s AMD processors whichprevents the buffer overloading and attack of malicious viruses. Presidio is a viable feature ofAMD processors because it makes use of particular commands for trusted computations. Hypertransport is a major replacement for front buses and can also be used for direct connect
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architecture. Thermal design power is a technology and feature which helps the processors todetermine the maximum heat they have to deal with. INTEL ProcessorImportant features of Intel Processors are it has Higher-Performance Multiprocessor Systemswith QPI, CPU Performance Boost via Intel Turbo Boost Technology, Optimized MultithreadedPerformance through Hyper-Threading, Higher Data-Throughput via PCI Express 2.0 and DDR3Memory Interface, Improved Virtualization Performanceand Remote Management ofNetworked Systems with Intel Active Management Technology (AMT).Core FrequencyThe higher clocker speed simply means that there are more work cycles per second, not theamount of work done per second. Intel CPU has the tendency to divide its task into many smallparts for easy processing. As such, the amount of work done per cycle is relatively small. On thecontrary, AMD has lesser work cycle, but it processes more data per cycle. Thus, when it addsup, the amount of work done can be quite significant. Additionally, AMD processors can dothings that Intel chips can't. Whereas most Intel processors are locked in at a fixed clockingspeed, many AMD processors can be "overclocked" – that is, they can be made to run at a fasterspeed than is available right out of the box.
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