The client may also need medications to help increase

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The essential treatment for clients with hypovolemic shock is to restore fluid volume and blood pressure. The client may also need medications to help increase cardiac output and mean arterial pressure, such as dobutamine (Dobutrex) and norepinephrine (Levophed). In the initial stage of shock, only subtle changes in clinical signs may be seen. Hypotension does not typically occur until the progressive stage of shock. Pallor, cool and clammy skin, altered level of consciousness and irregular heart rhythms are the other classic findings of the progressive stage. Cardiogenic shock typically develops following an acute MI, especially a ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI). However, cardiogenic shock can result from any cardiac dysfunction that causes acute myocardial ischemia. Cardioversion is an elective procedure that is used to treat dysrhythmias, like atrial fibrillation. It involves synchronized shocks specific to the arrhythmia. Defibrillation is used for the immediate treatment of life- threatening arrhythmias, like ventricular fibrillation. It involves non-synchronized shocks during the cardiac cycle. Intracranial pressure is the pressure inside the skull and brain tissue. Altered LOC is often one of the earliest signs that a client has increased ICP. LOC is also the most important component of the neurological assessment in a high acuity and emergent client situation. Increased ICP can be caused by trauma, hemorrhage, tumors, edema or inflammation. The essential treatment for clients with hypovolemic shock is to restore fluid volume and blood pressure. The client may also need medications to help increase cardiac output and mean arterial pressure, such as dobutamine (Dobutrex) and norepinephrine (Levophed). Points to Remember - CPR RN Lesson 8-I Emergency CPR Compressions - Airway - Breathing ("C-A-B") o The health care provider should not delay activating the EMS but check the victim for two things simultaneously: response and breathing. o The current emphasis is on establishing good chest compressions with 30 compressions preceding the 2 ventilations. Start compressions within 10 seconds of recognizing cardiac arrest.
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Push hard and fast on the chest, without interruption, at a rate of at least 100 compressions a minute, allowing complete chest recoil after each compression.
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