Leptin reduced hunger while another hormone produced by the stomach ghrelin

Leptin reduced hunger while another hormone produced

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Leptin reduced hunger while another hormone produced by the stomach, ghrelin, spurs appetite Factor Lessening Leptin’s Effectiveness - Genetics: The ‘OB’ gene mutation can cause abnormally low leptin levels, leading to overeating and low metabolism - Overeating over time can cause hypothalamus to become less sensitive to leptin - Chronic fructose consumption (e.g. soft drinks, candy bars, sweetened foods) leads to leptin sensitivity - Sleep deprivation, especially combined with stress, lowers leptin levels - Sleep deprivation can also increase ghrelin levels, making us hungrier (even after one night) Environmental Influences on Weight - Genetics alone can’t explain why rates of overweight and obesity are rising in recent years - Rates are increasing among all: Social classes Ethnicities Ages Five Major Environmental Influences 1. Increased abundance of inexpensive fast food and processed food 2. Increased consumption of high-calorie sugary sodas (‘addiction’ due to stimulation of brain’s reward system) 3. Sedentary Lifestyle 4. Availability of highly varied foods 5. Increased portion sizes (2-3 times larger) Something Else to Consider: - Leptin levels can also have ‘organizing effects’ on the hypothalamus during early development Influences development of neural circuits that help to reduce hunger Possible that out lifestyle is creating who are biologically prone to overeating? Eating Disorders - Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the best-known eating disorders - They occur mostly among young western white women, but also occur in men, older individuals, and other ethnic groups - Male body dysmorphia can also take the form of feeling too small Factors Influencing Eating Disorders
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- Genetic and cultural factors - But psychological causes also play a major role, such as: Depression Anxiety Perfectionism Low self esteem Distorted body image Love, Sex, and Attachment The Psychology of Love - Two strong predictors of whom people will love are: Proximity: we tend to choose our lovers and friends from the people who live, study, or work near us Similarity: in looks, attitudes, beliefs, values, personality, and interests Love and Attachment - When people love, people form different kinds of attachments - Attachment theory views adult love relationships, like those infants, as being: Secure Avoidant, or Anxious The Attachment Theory of Love - Secure: rarely jealous or worried about abandonment - Anxious: Agitated and worried partner will leave - Avoidant: Distrustful, avoids intimate attachments Effects of Early Attachment Relationships - People who are treated poorly early in life and lack secure attachments may have problems with committed relationships as adults - As children: trouble regulating negative emotions - As teenagers: trouble dealing with and recovering from conflict with their peers - As adults: tend to ‘protect’ themselves by becoming the less-committed partner in their relationships The Good News -
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