Step 4 Similar to the last step in Figure 1 the target IFC model generated

Step 4 similar to the last step in figure 1 the

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Step 4. Similar to the last step in Figure 1, the target IFC model generated through the previous steps is deliv- ered to downstream applications. 1.1. Defining the PM of structural design for collaborative design with simplified BPMN notations As the first step in the proposed delivery process, the PM describes the relationships between activities, participants, and ERs. One of the methods used to define PM is the BPMN, which is recommended as a PM modeling nota- tion in ISO 29481-1 (ISO, 2016). BPMN provides over 160 graphical notations for illustrating numerous meanings in the process map (Object Management Group, 2013), which is difficult to use in practice (Ko, S. S. G. Lee, & E. W. Lee, 2009; Recker, 2010). An analysis of 54 BPMN- based processes (Lee et al., 2013) shows that some misuses of BPMN notations do exist in practice. Hence, to ensure the accuracy of the PM, 22 frequently used notations (e.g., Activity, Intermediate Event (Message/Catching), and Gateway (Exclusive)) were suggested by Lee et al. (2013) to define the PM. In this study, these simplified BPMN notations were used to define the PM of structural design for collaboration, ensuring a human-readable and correct PM. These 22 BPMN notations are recommended for the use in PM, but not mandatory. To ensure the validity and applicability of the PM in practice, the proposed PM of structural design related to civil buildings was proposed through literature review and interviews with several structural engineers who are expe- rienced in civil engineering projects. Furthermore, some practical projects were employed to verify and improve the proposed PM. Figure 3 illustrates a portion of the PMs of structural design for civil engineering projects. The PMs are illustrated in several separate but interconnected diagrams. Figure 3(a) shows the overall PM of structural design for collaboration, and an example of the expan- sion of preliminary structural design in Figure 3(a) is il- lustrated in Figure 3(b). In Figure 3, activities and ERs in the PM of structural design are located in different swimlanes, such as disci- pline-specific swimlane and ER swimlane. The activities which are represented by round-corner boxes are con- ducted by structural engineers at different stages. The plus sign in some activities (called Sub-process (Collapsed)) means that the detailed activities can be elaborated by another process map, such as the preliminary structural design in Figure 3(b). Some activities need to import the required information for getting started, and others may export specific deliverables for downstream activities. The imported and exported information is organized into dif- ferent types of ERs. These ERs and activities are connected by the circle sign with an email symbol. The white-colored circle with an email (called Intermediate Event (Mes- sage/Catching)) is used to import ERs, and the black one (called Intermediate Event (Message/Throwing)) for ex- porting ERs.
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