DemandSide_Management.pdf

This software has been piloted by the sacramento

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This software has been piloted by the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) and has produced energy savings of 3 percent. Utility controls. Direct load control programs are used to curb demand, such as air conditioning, during critical peak periods. The smart grid will enable customers to manage their own demand (and distributed generation resources) based on price or other signals from the utility. These controls could be integrated with programmable communicating thermostats, home energy controllers, or other automation tools to match customer preferences. Increasing levels of control by utilities will enable automated demand response programs, ensuring load shed and enabling utilities to bid this capacity into markets as a resource. Education and marketing. Customer education on the benefits and the technology of DSM programs can be targeted to different market segments, different education goals, or different channels. Customer insight and verification. To drive improvements, it is essential to verify DSM program results and collect feedback, regardless of whether the targets are broad or narrow. A powerful benefit of the smart grid is that it enables verification of the impact of DSM programs over different time horizons. A sample of design options for each of the levers is summarized in Exhibit 2. Successful pilots indicate complementary effects interact across the levers and design options. Providing both in-home displays (IHDs) and pre-pay options, for example, resulted in energy conservation benefits of 13 to 15 percent, while IHDs alone yielded a median impact of 7 percent. The six levers of effective demand-side management
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41 The smart grid and the promise of demand-side management Exhibit 2 Successful demand-side management Successful DSM optimizes multiple design options across 6 levers DSM lever Description Same rate at all times Extremely high rates during critical peaks Variable pricing for prescheduled blocks of time Variable pricing at all times, informed close to instantaneously Increase rate for higher use customers Base case Debit bill based on degree of behavior change Provide separate check to encourage behavior change Monthly paper bills and consumption information Notification of DR events under way Consumption at a given moment (e.g., kW, light bulb equivalents) Consumption compared to previous period of time Consumption compared against last month’s or peers’ Individual device usage in real time; can be paired with above Real-time billing information No automation of devices to reduce energy consumption Automated AC control Automated appliance on/off Centralized control & automation of major home appliances Optimized charging of PHEVs Optimized usage, storage, and later discharging of energy Base case Vary by income, consumption behavior, attitudes Use various means: e-mail, bill inserts, newspaper, etc.
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