investments required but it takes little imagina tion to see that a major

Investments required but it takes little imagina tion

This preview shows page 42 - 44 out of 136 pages.

investments required, but it takes little imagina-tion to see that a major mobilisation of economic resources will be required, especially when seen in the short-term perspective. 36 GLOBELICS THEMATIC REVIEW
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As mentioned at the beginning of this chap-ter, low-carbon development is concerned with strengthening national LICS so that they are reori- ented toward contributing to the goals inherent in low-carbon development. For some countries, this may imply the building of low-carbon energy tech- nology systems of innovation. For other countries, it implies a strengthening of dissemination and ad- aptation capabilities for low-carbon energy and for LICS in general, but without engaging in the con- struction of low-carbon energy technology systems. With regard to energy transformations (the topic of Chapter 3), it may be worthwhile to focus on technology levels. In a given country, LICS with a focus on particular low-carbon technologies (e.g., solar photovoltaic (PV) technology) do not neces- sarily exist. In such cases, the support of sectoral or technology-specific LICS are important. To do so we must understand LICS as social organisms that, as flowers in a garden, must be nurtured. However, the observation of practical technol-ogy- specific LICS building often shows that these processes ultimately hinge on the strength and effi- ciency of existing national LICS and industry struc- tures. A case in point is Bangladesh, where a local manufacturing industry in the field of solar energy was successfully developed. In contrast, Kenya’s fail-ure in this regard provided a strong demonstration of the influence of differences in existing compe-tences when industry-promoting policies were en-acted (UN, 2011, p. 141). See Box 3 for further details on systems competence building in Kenya. The box shows that although Solar PV has had con- siderable success in Kenya, it has been concentrated in solar PV deployment; on the other hand, manu-facturing has been confined to ‘experimentations’ and these have been adversely affected by national instability. Box 3. Solar home systems in Kenya Photovoltaic (PV) technology already gained a foothold in Kenya in the late 1970s and early 1980s. It was used to power commercial and com-munity applications such as telecommunications facilities and health centres. The first recorded ex-perience with Solar Home Systems (SHS) stems from the mid-1980s, when an ex-Peace Corps vol-unteer, Harold Burris, used PV technology for his home. In 1985, Burris teamed up with another Peace Corps volunteer, Mark Hankins, to install PV lighting in a rural Kenyan school. Following this installation, the headmaster and teachers wanted PV for their homes. From this point, Bur-ris began to market his solar home systems locally, in a relatively wealthy part of Kenya. Within a few years, Burris and his technicians were busy install-ing SHS, and the PV suppliers in Nairobi entered this growing market once they received news of the success enjoyed by Burris.
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