When is it an independent influence on foreign policy

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° When is it an independent influence on foreign policy? When it has a cohort of expert correspondents in the field
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o If media is educated and has independent sources of information about a situation, they don’t have to rely on what the White House is telling them Later in wars o Media typically begins questioning the war later on and there is more criticism – it becomes the independent influence on the war If the media unites, influence is taken more strongly On relations that the public has little knowledge about o Media can’t shift one’s views on something you know well ° Iraq and Afghanistan media coverage today – is it biased? Anti- war bias o The American people tend to see media coverage of the wars as negative It might have to do with the type of war – eg. Iraq and Afghanistan are counter-resurgence, nation rebuilding type wars – not like WWII Only bad news is noteworthy Good news is not noteworthy or worthy of front page attention by Americans o Embedded journalists give vivid and accurate reports Journalists become very sympathetic to the soldiers and skew their sympathies to pro-war o Misperceptions of the Iraq War: Weapons of mass-destruction have been found Iraq War was popular around the world Iraq had strong ties with Al Qaida before the war o Republicans who got their news from Fox were much more likely to believe these misperceptions than those who paid less attention to the news or more attention to NPR Media shaped when we believe the Iraq war was over – April 9th o Focused heavily on the picture of the statue of Saddam being torn down o Battlefield disappeared from press coverage and Americans were convinced that the war was over ° ° ° President ° ° ° Media Public °
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Research Paper 04/25/2011 ° ° 2 theories (Khong theory and the media) complement each other in explaining one case (Vietnam) ° Vietnam Khong’s theory that US foreign policy is a result of the most recent policy decision (US lets North Vietnam become communist in the fall of the French) CNN effect or media effect ° ° Khong’s theory assessed in a) in the light of WWII, the Cold War reaction & US allows Russia to take over Germany after they had just let Germany take over Poland and initiate the War b) Vietnam – US allowed North Vietnam to be communist (French lost to Chinese communists) so in the next step, they couldn’t let South Vietnam fall as well ° ° still cover the counterargument/address the opposing points ° define the theory/summarize shortly in the beginning °
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Individual Psychology and Perception 04/25/2011 ° Mismatch between complexity of the world and our brain’s finite capability to make sense of the complexity
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It’s not easy to establish causal connection between decision- makers psychological make-up and the policy that the US pursues o US is affected by other bureaucratic forces, media, public pressure, etc.
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