Formatting by generic signals for compaction

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Formatting by generic signals for compaction, attachment, transcription, replication, transmission, repair Networking by repeat sequences Higher order “indexing” by chromatin domains, spatial organization of chromosomes QuickTime™ and a Photo - JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture.
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DNA formatting to execute a cognitive algorithm - E. coli discriminates glucose and lactose 1. The algorithm: IF lactose present AND glucose not present AND cell can synthesize active LacZ (beta-galactosidase) and LacY (lactose permease), THEN transcribe lacZYA from lacP 2. The formatted DNA:
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DNA formatting for chromosome transmission to daughter cells - centromeres B A Sullivan, M D Blower & G H Karpen DETERMINING CENTROMERE IDENTITY: CYCLICAL STORIES AND FORKING PATHS Nature Reviews Genetics 2; 584-596 (2001)
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What are the sources of novelty in evolution? New protein functions - domain shuffling and accretion  New adaptive systems (Hox complexes, olfactory sensing, early embryonic functions) – duplication, reverse transcription, multiple transpositions  New species (novel cereals, Muntjac, Drosophila) – hybridization, changes in ploidy, chromosome fusions, inversions  New kinds of cells (e.g. Gram-negative bacteria, eukaryotes, plants) - symbiosis
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Protein evolution by domain accretion International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature 409, 860 - 921 (2001)
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Most pairs of similar OR gene clusters (labeled in black) fall into established syntenic chromosomal regions (), but some (labeled in red) do not. Young, J. M. et al. Different evolutionary processes shaped the mouse and human olfactory receptor gene families. Hum. Mol. Genet. 11, 535-546 (2002) Protein Amplification: Olfactory Receptors
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Segmental Duplications in Arabidopsis Segmentally duplicated regions in the Arabidopsis genome. Individual chromosomes are depicted as horizontal grey bars (with chromosome 1 at the top), centromeres are marked black. Coloured bands connect corresponding duplicated segments. Similarity between the rDNA repeats are excluded. Duplicated segments in reversed orientation are connected with twisted coloured bands. The scale is in megabases. Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Nature 408, 796 - 815 (2000).
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Evolution of imprinted heterochromatin by insertions
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  • Fall '19
  • DNA, Genome Research, Genome Sequencing Consortium, James A. Shapiro, natural genetic engineering

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