1859 HBC retains its territorial rights but looses its license to exclusive trade. First major Canadian rail project, the Grand Trunk, is completed between Lévis, opposite Quebec City, and Sarnia. 1854 HBC man, Dr. John Rae maps the final section of the Arctic coastline, discovering both the missing link of the North West Passage and the fate of the Franklin expedition. 1846 Oregon Treaty establishes the 49 th parallel as the boundary between American and British territory west of the Rockies, with Vancouver Island to be British. A measles epidemic sweeps along the Winnipeg River. It does not appear to affect those at Red Lake or the Bloodvein River. 1843 Final HBC anti-liquor regulations are approved by Council at Red River on June 17 th . Attempts made by Americans to lure fur trade from Fort Garry to US Post at Pembina. Fort Victoria is built. 1849 HBC Pacific headquarters moved from Fort Vancouver to Fort Victoria, since the former is now in U.S. Territory. 1857 Colony of British Columbia is created. Discovery of gold on the Fraser River attracts a rush of Americans into British territory. 1860 United States has 30,000 route- miles of rail track. Gold fever pulls miners to Caribou Country. George Simpson dies. 1867 The British North America Act creating Canada is enacted at Westminister on March 29 th ; Clause 146 makes terms for the admission of Rupert’s Land and Northwest Territories into the new Confederation.
1890 Powder, shot, axes and nets are considered indispensable’ goods. Many Aboriginal now rely on flour, pork, tallow, wool clothing and blankets. Traders at Osnaburgh House express fears that the beaver has declined. The traders attribute this to the fact that the Native people, constantly driven back by the encroachment of hunters from elsewhere, no longer spare a few animals for breeding which had been their custom. 1889 HBC, CRP and the Federal Government push land sales in the West. Sir Donald Alexander Smith becomes 26 th Governor of HBC. 1885 Louis Riel is hung at Regina for high treason after the Northwest Rebellion of that year. 1880 HBC begins to sell farm lots in Western Canada. 1869 HBC signs Deed of Surrender on November 19 th , agreeing to surrender Rupert’s Land to the Crown. HBC keeps its 120 posts and land concessions. William McDougall (Lieutenant - Governor of Rupert’s Land) sets out for Red River and is turned back by armed Métis . 1881 First HBC Mail Order catalogue. 1868 The Earl of Kimberley is appointed Governor of the HBC. Canadian delegation arrives in London to begin negotiations for HBC lands. 1870 Louis Riel leads a rebellion at Red River against the government. The goal, to preserve Métis rights and culture. The HBC re-establishes a post on the Bloodvein. From its closure in 1821, the Bloodvein Indians are forced to travel great distances to trade. Many gravitate to the Berens River, Sandy Narrows, Fort Alexander and also Lac Seul.
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