Three Anti and Five Anti 1951 1952 o CCP felt that a lot of businesspeople were

Three anti and five anti 1951 1952 o ccp felt that a

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“Three Anti and Five Anti” (1951-1952) o CCP felt that a lot of businesspeople were not loyal because they became wealthy under the KMT era o Three anti: corruption, waste and bureaucracy (targeting the bureaucracy) o Five anti: bribery, theft of state property, tax evasion, cheating on government contracts, stealing state economic information (targeting the businesspeople) As a result of these campaigns (including the Korean War), the party has consolidated its power through propaganda and purging. The next step is to restructure the economy In a communist regime, there is no private property. Before the CCP took over though, China was not a communist country, so many people still “owned” private property As a result, the CCP confiscated and appropriate all private properties (early 1950s) o Confiscation of private/foreign capital o Usually negotiated for the previous owners to get stock in the company so that they can get some profit The First Five Year Plan (1953) o A key element of a socialist economy o Focus on heavy industry Marked a huge shift in the Chinese economy away from agriculture o Since they didn’t have enough resources to feed heavy industry, they wanted to exploit agricultural China to fuel urban China (buy grain at low prices from rural China and sell them to urban China) o Basically copied the Soviet model o Enjoyed support from Soviet Union (USSR sent scientists and technicians) The “Hundred Flowers” Campaign and the “Anti-Rightist” Campaign Four underlying tensions in the mid-1950s o The role of Mao Mao became a god-like figure as a result of the CCP’s victory in 1949 In the 1950s, he was still the chairman and paramount leader of China but gradually, Mao felt that this new regime no longer needed people like him. o The Soviet Model The whole regime was built on peasant workers and they won the war because of the support of the rural population But now, they were making policies that exploited the interests of the peasantry o Soviet Aid China was getting low-interest loans from the Soviet Union Starting in the 1950s, China needed to pay back these loans (and they were unable to generate enough funds to pay)
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o Intellectuals vs. Peasants and workers Before the war, the CCP relied on the peasantry and the workers After the war, the CCP had to rely on intellectuals (especially because of the pivot toward heavy industry) The social status of intellectual suddenly rose in the 1950s The peasants didn’t understand why they lost their status even though they sacrificed during the war The 20 th Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1956) o Stalin died and was succeeded by Khrushchev o Khrushchev called a secret meeting during the 20 th party congress in which he denounced Stalin! o He publicized a letter written by Lenin about the wickedness of Stalin o Resulted in a short period of liberalization in the USSR-“the Khrushchev Thaw” o This had a tremendous impact on Mao, who was not aware that Khrushchev would make this speech.
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