Bottom back of the brain the eight cranial bones

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bottom back of the brain - The eight cranial bones protecting our brains are the frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones. - Sections/planes of the brain include: coronal (vertical short), sagittal (vertical long), horizontal. - Cerebral Cortex: the outer layer of the cerebrum, approx. 3mm thick - Primary Visual Cortex: where information is received from your eyes - Primary Auditory Cortex: involved in comprehending spoken language, as well as a variety of auditory input - Primary Somatosensory Cortex: involved in processing bodily sensations; particular parts of the body are connected to particular parts of this cortex - Primary Motor Cortex: involved in controlling movement different parts are again devoted to different parts of the body/ motor functions - Contralateral Control: the left half of the brain controls the right half of the body, and vice versa - Prefrontal Cortex: associated with higher cognitive functions such as self-awareness, planning and decision making, creativity, abstract reasoning, executive control, personality; damage can result in major changes in personality, social behavior, ability to plan, impulsivity, etc. - Locating verbal behavior in the brain : aphasias; comprehension-Wernicke’s area/superior temporal lobe; production- Broca’s area/inferior temporal lobe - Subcortical Structures: as you move from the brain stem to the upper areas of the brain, the complexity of brain functions increases; Thalamus: sensory relay, consciousness; first ‘stop’ of received signals Hypothalamus: regulates basic biological needs- four f’s (fighting, fleeing, feeding, ‘sexual behaviors’) Pituitary Gland: hormonal regulation Amygdala: emotions and learning; located in temporal lobe Hippocampus: memory and learning; located in temporal lobe - Anterograde Amnesia: inability to form new memories - Cerebellum: balance, coordination, motor learning - Medulla: heart rate, blood pressure, circulation, breathing - Reticular Formation & Pons: sleep and alertness Neurons - Are cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information - Your nervous system contains as many as 100 billion neurons - The flow of information is an electrochemical process - Neurons in resting state have a net negative charge (about -70mV) - Movement caused by a greater concentration of positively charged ions outside the cell than inside Sodium and potassium play significant roles; sodium potassium pump; outside the cell membrane is + and the inside is -, so more sodium on the outside and potassium on the inside
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There are also large negatively charged protein molecules inside the cell - Ion channels are mostly closed when the neuron is at rest - When a neuron is stimulated (if the stimulation is strong enough to reach a threshold), ion channels open, allowing ions to flow through First, Na+ channels open and Na+ flows in, then K+ channels open and K+ flows out Action Potential - All-or-none law: a neuron either fires or doesn’t fire (there’s no in between) -
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