o Thorndike: law of effect, puzzle boxes o Skinner and the skinner boxo Positive and negative reinforcemento Positive and negative punishmento Schedules of reinforcement - Continuous (faster learning, easy to extinguish) - Intermittent (partial) (slower learning, harder to extinguish) o Schedules of partial reinforcement:Fixed ratio: Reinforcement after a set number of responsesVariable ratio: Reinforcement after an average, but variable, number of responses o Discriminative stimulus o Shaping, with successive approximations to target behavioro Superstitious behaviour – caused by inadvertent reinforcement o Instinctive drift – interferes with trainingo Latent learningo Observational learningo Social-cognitive theories - o Bandura’s bobo doll studies - o Relationship between media violence and aggression in society Observational learning o Social-cognitive theories
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- o Bandura’s bobo doll studies - Results: o Children who saw an aggressive model acted much more aggressively toward the doll. o They imitated the same aggressive behaviours they had seen the model use.o Children imitated the model more when the model was the same sex as them.o Girls were more likely to imitate verbal aggression and boys were more likely to imitate physical aggression.o Overall, the boys were more physically aggressive than the girls.o Children imitated the model more when the aggression was rewarded and less when it was punished.- Further findings from related studies: By the time a child finishes grade school, they have witnessed 8,000 murders and 100,000 other acts of violence on TV. (1992 estimate) Children also imitate the aggressive behavior of actors in films and even cartoons, not just real, live models. • Children also act aggressively toward a real person (not just toward dolls) after observing an aggressive model. o Preparedness and observational learning - Mineka’s studies with monkeys o Monkeys learn to fear snakes by watching other monkeys react fearfully to snakes o Monkeys do not easily learn to fear flowers by watching other monkeys respond fearfully to flowers.o Demonstrates preparednesso Operant conditioning in real life o Positive effects of operant conditioning (i.e., operant conditioning in real life) - Behaviour modification (applied behaviour analysis – ABA) o Reinforcement of desirable behaviours o Reduction of problematic behaviours
- Punishment – when it works and when it fails - Negative consequences of reinforcement (when rewards backfire) o Undermining intrinsic enjoyment of activities o Turning work into playChapter 10: Memory o Three components of memory: encoding, storage, retrievalo Information processing metaphor for memoryo Three-box model of memory: sensory, short-term (STM), long-term (LTM)o Connectionist models (what does this mean?) – parallel distributed processing o For sensory, short-term and long-term memory: - Length of time information can be stored in each type of memory (duration) -
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