oProduced in the testes in the Leydig cells.Gives males their secondary sexual characteristics and sex drive. Regulates metabolism and protein anabolism (builds muscle fuck yeah)Inhibits anterior pituitary secretion of gonadotropins (FSH, and LH)Promotes potassium excretionPromotes Renal sodium REABSORPTION Unfortunately contributes to male pattern baldness and acne.othe hypothalamus sends GnRH to pituitary which releases LH and ACTH.oLH produces testosterone for the prostate in the testes oIn the adrenals ACTH produces androgens for the prostate. All androgens are steroids that have been synthesized from cholesterol and acetylcoenzyme A. oAfter testosterone has been secreted by the testes it circulates in the blood. 97% is loosely bound to albumin, but is tightly bound to sex hormone binding globulins (SHBG).oFrom the blood it gets distributed to tissues and eventually degraded into inactive metabolites for excretion. Phimosis
4Pathophysiology Pharmacology Final Exam OutlineDescriptionManifestations/complicationsTreatmentsForeskin cannot be retracted from glans penis, becomes problematic after 3 years of age.Leads toPoor hygiene InfectionsInflammationElderly men are at increased risk for Loss of skin integrityLess frequent erectionsComplications urinary obstruction and pain Paraphimosis is a medical emergency!Foreskin is retracted and cannot be retuned over the glanspenis.oPenis becomes constricted and edematous oCan become gangrene CircumcisionTopical steroid creamStretching of the foreskin HydroceleDescriptionCausesManifestations/diagnosisTreatmentAn accumulation of fluid between the layers of the tunica vaginalis, or the spermatic cord.Affects one or both testes.In infants it is a congenital defect, usually disappears without treatment after a year. Infants with hydrocele usually present with inguinal hernia as well. In adults it is caused by inflammation, infection, trauma andtumors. Painless scrotal enlargement that worsens over the course of the day, also feel heavy DX would be to transilluminate the scrotum, hydroceles will transilluminate while tumors will not. May not require treatment other than correcting underlying cause. Strategies to encourage reabsorptionof fluid are to elevate the scrotum (using a towel), sitz baths, heat and cold application. Wear underwear that’s a size larger.Large amounts of fluid require aspiration or surgical removal of fluid called hydrocelectomy. SpermatoceleDescriptionCausesManifestations/diagnosistreatmentA benign, sperm containing cyst that develops between the testes and the epididymis.