The Australian Army’s inherent masculine culture is a direct reflection of Australian society. Major General Orme, in his report of ADF personal conduct review asserts, “Soc ial stratification coupled with a male dominated cultural model tends to create various manifestations of ‘insiders’ and ‘outsiders.’” 80 Outsiders are generally minorities such as women. Further, Orme discusses the term “mateship” which underpins the Austra lian Army’s values as reinforcing the masculine stereotype. The term is an example of an unconscious bias inherent within the Australian Army. 81 Recently, Lieutenant General Morrison introduced Respect as an addition to the Australian Army Values of Courage, Integrity, and Teamwork. The inclusion of Respect as the fourth value supports the CA’s desire to drive cultural change. Respect is needed at all levels in order for the Australian Army to become an inclusive organization and to reduce the incidents of discriminative and unethical behavior. 79 Geert- Hofstede website, “ Country Comparison ,” -hofstede.com/ australia.html (accessed 2 March 2014). 80 Orme, 4. 81 Ibid., 18.
41 Despite the CA’s commitment to improve culture, improve recruitment and retention of women, and increase work-life balance, there is still an issue with the ascension of women. Table 1 clearly identifies a decrease of over 10 percent from O2 to O6. It is the largest decrease between the four countries examined. Canada shares a similar culture to Australia in terms of the historic British influence, western ideologies, and the quest to ensure the Canadian Army reflects society. The Geert- Hofstede cultural study reflects Canada’s masculinity index as lower than Australia: Canada scores 52 on this dimension and can be characterized as a moderately “masculine” society. While Canadians strive to attain high standards of performance in both work and play (sports), the overall cultural tone is more subdued with respect to achievement, success and winning, when compared to the US. Similarly, Canadians also tend to have a work-life balance and are likely to take time to enjoy personal pursuits, family gatherings and life in general. This is not to say that Canadians are not hard workers. As a general rule, Canadians strive to attain high standards of performance in all endeavors. 82 Canada considers itself as a leader in the integration of women in the armed forces, the National Defence and Canadian Armed Forces website states: “ Canada is a world leader in terms of the proportion of women in its military, and the areas in which they can serve. Among their allies, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) are highly regarded as being at the forefront of military gender integration. ” 83 Similar to Australia, the Canadian society is diverse in terms of gender, ethnic, race, and religion, therefore, 82 Geert-Hofstede website.
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