○ Left-sided heart failure causes an accumulation of fluid in the lungs also known as pulmonary edema . This occurs because the left side of the heart is unable to efficiently pump oxygen- rich blood from the lungs to the rest of the body. The increase in pressure in the veins of the lungs results in localized fluid accumulation. ○ Right-sided heart failure causes fluid buildup throughout the rest of the body. This occurs because the right side of the heart is unable to efficiently pump blood throughout the rest of the body. Due to the pressure of gravity, this edema, or swelling, is first noticeable in the feet and legs. As this swelling worsens, it can also affect the liver, gastrointestinal tract, or the arms. ○ Cardiomegaly (kar-dee-oh-MEG-ah-lee) is the abnormal enlargement of the heart that is frequently associated with heart failure as the heart enlarges in an effort to compensate for its
decreased pumping ability ( cardi/o means heart, and -megaly means enlargement). Carditis ● Carditis (kar-DYE-tis) is an inflammation of the heart ( card means heart, and -itis means inflammation). Note the spelling of carditis : In this term, the word root (combining form) card/o is used to avoid having a double i when it is joined with the suffix -itis . ○ Endocarditis (en-doh-kar-DYE-tis) is an inflammation of the inner lining of the heart ( endo- means within, card means heart, and -itis means inflammation). ○ Bacterial endocarditis is an inflammation of the lining or valves of the heart caused by the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. One cause of this condition is bleeding during dental surgery because it allows bacteria from the mouth to enter the bloodstream. ○ Pericarditis (pehr-ih-kar-DYE-tis) is an inflammation of the pericardium ( peri- means surrounding, card means heart, and -itis means inflammation). This inflammation causes an accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac, and this excess fluid restricts the beating of the heart, thereby reducing the ability of the heart to pump blood throughout the body. ○ Myocarditis (my-oh-kar-DYE-tis) is an uncommon condition that is an inflammation of the myocardium (heart muscle) that develops as a complication of a viral infection ( my/o means muscle, card means heart, and -itis means inflammation).
Diseases of the Myocardium ● Cardiomyopathy (kar-dee-oh-my-OP-pah-thee)is the term used to describe all diseases of the heart muscle ( cardi/o means heart, my/o means muscle, and -pathy means disease). ● Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle that causes the heart to become enlarged and to pump less strongly. The progression of this condition is usually slow and only presents with symptoms when quite advanced. Dilated means the expansion of a hollow structure. Heart Valves ● A heart murmur is an abnormal blowing or clicking sound heard when listening to the heart or a neighboring large blood vessels. Heart murmurs are most often caused by defective heart valves, but do not usually require surgery unless they affect the patient's quality of life.
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- Spring '19