o Venous blood entering heart deoxygenated except blood coming from the lungs o

O venous blood entering heart deoxygenated except

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o Venous blood: entering heart; deoxygenated except blood coming from the lungs. o 45% formed elements, 55% plasma Formed elements = buffy coat (platelets & White blood cells = leukocytes ) + Red blood cells = erythrocytes Blood Plasma = fluid part of blood (92% water, = 1% dissolved solutes, 7- 8% plasma proteins) Plasma Proteins = albumin, globulins, fibrinogen Albumins ( 55-60% of plasma proteins ): Produced in the liver and are the smallest in size. Globulins ( 35% of plasma proteins ): Grouped into 3 subtypes o Alpha Globulin & Beta Globulin : Produced by the liver and functions in transporting lipids and fat-soluble vitamins o Gamma Globulin = Immunoglobulin: Antibodies produced by lymphocytes and functions in immunity. Fibrinogen ( 6% of plasma of total plasma proteins): Important clotting factor produced by the liver * A cube millimeter of blood normally contains 5.1 to 5.8 million erythrocytes in males and 4.3 to 5.2 million erythrocytes in females. Hemoglobin: Gives blood its red color The majority of dietary Iron is absorbed in the Duodenum Iron-deficiency Anemia Results when there is insufficient Iron for the production of normal amounts of Hemoglobin. Most common form of Anemia o Low red blood cells or hemoglobin concentration Polycythemia: High red blood cell count Oxygen binds to the Heme of Hemoglobin in the lungs and is released from it as blood travel through systemic capillaries. Each Hemoglobin molecule consists of 4 proteins called globins, each of which is bound to one Heme.
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PCB STUDY GUIDE 21 Leukocytes: White blood cells o Contain nuclei and mitochondria o Can move in amoeboid fashion. Diapedesis or extravasation: Is the movement of leukocytes through capillary walls Basophils: Release Heparin Is a mucoprotein used as anticoagulant Neutrophils: Are the most abundant type of leukocyte o 50- 60% of leukocytes in the blood Lymphocytes: Are usually the second most numerous type of leukocytes o Are small cells with round nuclei and little cytoplasm. Monocytes: Are the largest of the leukocytes o Generaly have a “horse shoe” shaped nuclei. Eosinophils: Release clot-dissolving enzymes and help fight parasitic infections. Leukopenia: May be produced by radiation for cancer o Low white blood cell count. Leukocytosis: May be caused by cytokines released from an inflammation during an infection. o Abnormally high white blood cell count. Leukemia: Cancer of the bone marrow o Causes a high number of abnormal and Immature white blood cells to appear in the blood. Platelets or thrombocytes: Are fragments of large cells ( megakaryocytes), o which are found in the bone marrow. o Are destroyed by the spleen and liver after circulating for 5-9 days Blood clotting: When a blood vessel is injured, a number of physiological mechanisms are activated that promote Hemostasis Hemostasis = cessation ( STOP page ) of bleeding after a blood vessel is damaged.
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