The best possible turning performance results in a

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The best possible turning performance results in a maximum turn rate and a minimum turn radius. = g V n 2 1 = g V n n 2 1 n nW = L = 1 2 V 2 S C L n = V 1 2 S / W C L = g C L n 2 1 2 W / S n max = g C L , max n max 2 1 2 W / S n max max g C L ,max n max 2 W / S n max 2 1 Note:
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6 MAE 2 Minimum Turn Radius nW = L = 1 2 V 2 S C L R min 2 W / S g C L ,max n max 2 1 Note: V 2 = 2 n W / S C L R = V 2 g n 2 1 R = 2 n W / S C L g n 2 1 R min = 2 n max W / S C L ,max g n max 2 1
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7 MAE 2 Wing Loading Maximum turn rate and minimum turn radius are achieved when: n = nmax nmax is usually constrained by structural limits CL = CLmax CLmax occurs at stall airspeed Wing Loading = (W/S) is maximized W/S (lb/ft 2 ) Sailplane 6 General Aviation 20 Twin Turboprop 40 Jet Trainer 50 Jet Fighter 70 Jet Transport 120
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8 MAE 2 Maneuvering Load Limits (nmax) CFR Part 23 (normal, utility, acrobatic aircraft) Positive load factor limit Utility aircraft, n_plus > 4.4 g Acrobatic aircraft, n_plus > 6 g Normal aircraft, 2.5 g < n_plus < 3.8 g (typical) Negative load factor limit Normal and utility, n_minus < -0.4*n_plus Acrobatic aircraft, n_minus < -0.5*n_plus
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