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Retrieved from Jorde, L (2014). Genes, environment-lifestyle, and common disease. In K. McCance & S. Huether. (7th ed) Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (7th ed., pp. 164-182). [VitalSource bookshelf version]. Retrieved from McGowan, C. (2012). Patients’ confidentiality. Critical Care Nurse, 32(5), p. 61-64. doi:10.4037/ccn2012135 Shah, R., Rosso, K., & Nathanson, D. (2014). Pathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. World Journal of Clinical Oncology, 5(3), p. 283-289. doi: 10.5306/wjco.v5.i3.283 Mark as UnreadRE: wk 3 assignment 1 Amber Aramino Email this Author 9/17/2017 2:13:23 PM Jorge,
Great informative post. I found it interesting that 15-40% of BRCA carriers are at risk for developing contralateral breast cancer (Smith & Isaacs, 2011). BRCA 1 mutation is usually higher grade and more aggressive than the BRCA 2 mutation (Smith & Isaacs, 2011). Kristen has the advantage of knowing this information ahead of time should she develop breast cancer. This information may guide her in decision making regarding treatment options including the choice to have risk-reducing surgery. Bilateral mastectomy with adjunctive therapy has been shown to reduce risk by 50-60% (Smith & Isaacs, 2011). Smith, K., & Isaacs, C. (2011, November). BRCA Mutation Testing in Determining Breast Cancer Therapy. Retrieved from Question: What would you include in a patient education plan for a man with breast cancer? Dr. Richmond Mark as UnreadRE: wk 3 assignment 1 Jorge Nodal Email this Author 9/19/2017 8:06:47 PM Hello professor. Male breast cancer is a very rare form of cancer, accounting for less than 1% of all male tumors. Little is known about the etiology of Male Breast Cancer: hormonal, environmental and genetic factors have been reported to be involved in its pathogenesis. Major risk factors include clinical disorders carrying hormonal imbalances, radiation exposure and, in particular, a positive family history (FH) for Breast Cancer, the latter suggestive of genetic susceptibility. Rare mutations in high-penetrance genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) confer a high risk of BC development (Ottini, Palli, Rizzo, Federico, Bazan, & Russo, 2009). Because this form of cancer tends to be very aggressive in males, prevention is always the key.
Males with high genetic risks should schedule regular routine follow ups and notify their physician provider if any breast lumps are noted so they can be verified by a mammogram, ultrasound, or biopsy to rule out any malignancy. If malignancy is confirmed, tumor size together with the number of axillary nodes involved are the main prognostic factors and should guide the treatment choice. Locoregional approaches include surgery and radiotherapy (RT), depending upon the initial clinical presentation.

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