Chapter 6 Muscular System Spring 2017.ppt

Some fibers are contracted even in a relaxed muscle

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Some fibers are contracted even in a relaxed muscle Different fibers contract at different times to provide muscle tone The process of stimulating various fibers is under involuntary control
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Effect of Exercise on Muscles Effect of Exercise on Muscles Exercise increases muscle size, strength, and endurance Aerobic (endurance) exercise (biking, jogging) results in stronger, more flexible muscles with greater resistance to fatigue Makes body metabolism more efficient Improves digestion, coordination Resistance (isometric) exercise (weight lifting) increases muscle size and strength
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Effect of Exercise on Muscles Effect of Exercise on Muscles Figure 6.11
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Learning Objectives Learning Objectives Demonstrate or identify the different types of body movements. Define prime mover, antagonist, synergist, and fixator as they relate to muscles. List some criteria used in naming muscles.
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Muscles and Body Movements Muscles and Body Movements Movement is attained due to a muscle moving an attached bone Muscles are attached to at least two points Origin Attachment to an immoveable bone Insertion Attachment to a movable bone
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Types of Body Movements Types of Body Movements Flexion Decreases the angle of the joint Brings two bones closer together Typical of hinge joints like knee and elbow Extension Opposite of flexion Increases angle between two bones Rotation Movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis Common in ball-and-socket joints Example is when you move atlas around the dens of axis (shake your head “no”)
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Types of Body Movements Types of Body Movements Abduction Movement of a limb away from the midline Adduction Opposite of abduction Movement of a limb toward the midline Circumduction Combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction Common in ball-and-socket joints
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(c) Rotation Rotation Lateral rotation Medial rotation
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Abduction Adduction Circumduction (d) Abduction, adduction, and circumduction
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(b) Flexion, extension, and hyperextension Extension Flexion Hyperextension
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S (g) Supination (S) and pronation (P) Supination (radius and ulna are parallel) Pronation (radius rotates over ulna) S P P
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(e) Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion Dorsiflexion Plantar flexion
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(f) Inversion and eversion Inversion Eversion
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(h) Opposition Opposition
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Types of Muscles Types of Muscles Prime mover – Muscle with the major responsibility for a certain movement Synergist – Muscle that aids a prime mover in a movement and helps prevent rotation Antagonist – Muscle that opposes or reverses a prime mover Fixator – Stabilizes the origin of a prime mover
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Naming Skeletal Muscles Naming Skeletal Muscles By direction of muscle fibers Example: Rectus (straight) By relative size of the muscle Example: Maximus (largest) By location of the muscle Example: Temporalis (temporal bone) By number of origins Example: Triceps (three heads)
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Naming Skeletal Muscles
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  • Spring '14
  • cisneros
  • Biology

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